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Lactifluus caatingae Sá & Wartchow

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Scientific name
Lactifluus caatingae
Author
Sá & Wartchow
Common names
cogumelo tampa-de-leite
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Russulaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN A3c
Proposed by
Francisco Calaça
Assessors
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, Genivaldo Alves-Silva, Juliano M. Baltazar, Francisco Calaça, Luciana da Canêz, Marcela Monteiro
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Lactifluus caatingae was described from material collected in the municipality of Caracol, at Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, a national reserve located in the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, based on both morphological and molecular evidence. The specific epithet caatingae refers to the Caatinga biome. Although about half of the biome’s vegetation cover remains, the remnants are fragmented by the presence of rural establishments, subsistence crops, pastures, or agroforestry systems (Antongiovanni et al. 2020, IBGE 2020). The main threats to the species are the degradation and loss of habitat quality, including desertification, fire threats, the alteration of biogeochemical cycles caused by changes in land use and cover in the Caatinga, anthropogenic actions such as the opening of roads, which can cause impacting edge effects in up to 15 km into the vegetation, as well as other anthropogenic uses of the ecosystem (Santos and Tabarelli 2002, Ribeiro et al. 2016, Antongiovanni et al. 2020). The species is known from only one site with three collections (Sá et al. 2019). A population decline of at least 50% is inferred for L. caatingae in the next three generations (30-50 years), in light of the loss of suitable habitat area (Beuchle et al. 2015, Câmara et al. 2015) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2005, Haddad et al. 2015). Given the uniqueness and high-level plant endemisms of the Caatinga biome and the possibility of L. caatingae being an ectomycorrhizal species, we expect the species to be restricted to this ecosystem (Rocha et al. 2004, Fernandez et al. 2020). Thus Lactifluus caatingae is assessed as Endangered (EN), under criterion A3c.


Taxonomic notes

Lactifluus caatingae Sá & Wartchow, New Zealand Journal of Botany 57(3): 172 (2019).
Lactifluus caatingae was described based on both morphological and molecular evidence (Sá et al. 2019). The specific epithet caatingae refers to the Caatinga biome.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a rare species, known only from three collections found in Piauí State, Brazil in 2019. It is likely to become even rarer with the continued loss and degradation of the habitat in the Atlantic Forest due to human activity and climate change, thus Lactifluus caatingae is assessed as Endangered (EN), under criterion A3c.


Geographic range

The species is currently known from the exclusive Brazilian biome Caatinga, a mosaic of spinose shrubs mixed with seasonally dry forests. Lactifluus caatingae was found growing scattered on sandy soil in a seasonally deciduous broadleaved forest, in the municipality of Caracol, at ‘Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões’, a national reserve located in the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil, which covers the municipalities of Alvorada do Gurguéia, Canto do Buriti, Caracol, Cristino Castro, Guaribas, Jurema and Tamboril do Piauí. It is expected that this species can reach other parts of Caatinga and the ecotones bordering the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. Lactifluus caatingae was described as a gregarious species occurring in sandy soils, in a seasonally deciduous broadleaved forest in the Brazilian Caatinga domain. Lactifluus is a predominantly tropical ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus (De Crop et al. 2021). Some plant genera that are supposed to be ectomycorrhizal occur in the region where L. caatingae was collected. So, it is reasonable to suppose that this species can establish ECM associations as part of its trophic strategy.


Population and Trends

The species is known from only one site with three collections (Sá et al. 2019). This is a species with medium to high detectability, with rusty-brown to brownish-orange gregarious basidiomes that contrast with sandy soils and dry forests.
Since this is the only collection that has been taken so far, even with extensive fungal surveys in Northeastern Brazil being carried out, the species is considered rare. Based on the existing collections and the species rarity, between 200 to 400 potential sites may favor its occurrence, each of them supporting around 60 mature individuals. It is estimated that the current population of L. caatingae is around 12,000 to 24,000 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation.
A population decline of at least 50% is inferred for L. caatingae in the next three generations (30-50 years), in light of the loss of suitable habitat area (Beuchle et al. 2015, Câmara et al. 2015) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2005, Haddad et al. 2015). Given the uniqueness and high-level plant endemisms of the Caatinga biome and the possibility of L. caatingae being an ectomycorrhizal species, we expect the species to be restricted to this ecosystem (Rocha et al. 2004, Fernandez et al. 2020).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Lactifluus caatingae was described as a gregarious species occurring in sandy soils, in a seasonally deciduous broadleaved forest in the Brazilian Caatinga domain. Lactifluus is a predominantly tropical ectomycorrhizal (ECM) genus (De Crop et al. 2021). Some plant genera that are supposed to be ectomycorrhizal occur in the region where L. caatingae was collected. So, it is reasonable to suppose that this species can establish ECM associations as part of its trophic strategy.

Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest

Threats

It is estimated that between 24% to 51% of the dry forest that makes up the Caatinga could be deforested by 2050 (the next 30 years). Considered a biologically “poor” ecosystem in the past, the Caatinga has been neglected for a long time, without effective conservation measures. Until 2010, about 63% of the natural vegetation cover remained in the biome (Beuchle et al. 2015). In 2018, grassland vegetation predominated in the biome (46.8%), with only 5.6% of its territory under anthropic uses in the form of managed pasture, due to the limitation of economic activities due to the semi-arid climate. Although about half of the biome’s vegetation cover remains, the remnants are fragmented by the presence of rural establishments, subsistence crops, pastures, or agroforestry systems (Antongiovanni et al. 2020, IBGE 2020). The main threats to the species are the degradation and loss of habitat quality, including desertification, the alteration of biogeochemical cycles caused by changes in land use and cover in the Caatinga, anthropogenic actions such as the opening of roads, which can cause impacting edge effects in up to 15 km into the vegetation, as well as other anthropogenic uses of the ecosystem (Santos and Tabarelli 2002, Ribeiro et al. 2016, Antongiovanni et al. 2020).

Housing & urban areasSmall-holder plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingRoads & railroadsUnintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

The main required conservation actions include the management and maintenance of the protected areas where the species can be found, along with developing conservation plans to ensure the protection of Caatinga.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communicationsNational levelPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More surveys in suitable areas for the occurrence of the species should be explored, to determine the extent of its geographic distribution along with the Caatinga biome and even in other biomes in the country, such as Cerrado. Investigation of the bromatological aspects of the species, in order to verify its eventual edibility, as observed in other species of the genus, are also necessary researches.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade

No use/trade known. This may be another edible species in the genus Lactifluus, however, bromatological studies are needed.

Unknown

Bibliography

Antongiovanni, M., Venticinque, E.M., Matsumoto, M., Fonseca, C.R. 2020. Chronic anthropogenic disturbance on Caatinga dry forest fragments. Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 2064-2074. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13686
Berglund, H., Jonsson, B.G. 2005. Verifying an extinction debt among lichens and fungi in northern Swedish boreal forests. Conservation Biology19(2): 338-348. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00550.x

Beuchle, R., Grecchi, R.C., Shimabukuro, Y.E., Seliger, R., Eva, H.D., Sano, E., Achard, F. 2015. Land cover changes in the Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga biomes from 1990 to 2010 based on a systematic remote sensing sampling approach. Applied Geography 58: 116-127.

Câmara, G., Soterroni, A., Ramos, F., Carvalho, A., Andrade, P., Souza, R.C., Mosnier, A., Mant, R., Buurman, M., Pena, M., Havlik, P., Pirker, J., Kraxner, F., Obersteiner, M., Kapos, V., Affonso, A., Espíndola, G., Bocqueho, G. 2015.  Modelling Land Use Change in Brazil: 2000–2050”. São José dos Campos, Brasília, Laxenburg, Cambridge. INPE, IPEA, IIASA, UNEP-WCMC, 1st edition.

Fernandes MF, Cardoso D, de Queiroz LP. 2020. An updated plant checklist of the Brazilian Caatinga seasonally dry forests and woodlands reveals high species richness and endemism. Journal of Arid environments, 1;174:104079.

Haddad, N.M., Brudvig, L.A., Clobert, J. et al. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1: e1500052. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500052

Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE. 2020. Agência de Notícias - IBGE retrata cobertura natural dos biomas do país de 2000 a 2018. https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/agencia-sala-de-imprensa/2013-agencia-de-noticias/releases/28943-ibge-retrata-cobertura-natural-dos-biomas-do-pais-de-2000-a-2018

Ribeiro, K., Sousa-Neto, E.R.S., Carvalho, J.A., Lima, J.R.S., Menezes, R.S.C., Duarte-Neto, P.J., Guerra, G.S., Ometto, J.P.H.B. 2016. Land cover changes and greenhouse gas emissions in two different soil covers in the Brazilian Caatinga. Science of The Total Environment 571: 1048-1057. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.095

Rocha, P. L. B., Queiroz, L. P., & Pirani, J. R. 2004. Plant species and habitat structure in a sand dune field in the brazilian Caatinga: a homogeneous habitat harbouring an endemic biota. Brazilian Journal of Botany, 27(4), 739–755. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84042004000400013

Sá, M.C.A., Delgat, L., Verbeken, A., Sulzbacher, M.A., Baseia, I.G., Wartchow F. 2019. A new species of Lactifluus (Russulales, Agaricomycetes) from the Brazilian caatinga semiarid region. New Zealand Journal of Botany 57(3): 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2019.1587474

Santos, A.M., Tabarelli, M. 2002. Distance from roads and cities as a predictor of habitat loss and fragmentation in the caatinga vegetation of Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 62(4b): 897-905. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842002000500020

Spera, S.T., Reatto, A., Martins, E.S., Correia, J.R., Cunha, T.J.F. 1999. Solos Areno-Quartzosos no Cerrado: características, problemas e limitações ao uso. Embrapa Cerrados 7: 1-48.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted