• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Phylloporopsis boletinoides (A.H. Sm. & Thiers) Vizzini, Angelini, A. Farid, Gelardi, Costanzo & M.E. Sm.

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Scientific name
Phylloporopsis boletinoides
(A.H. Sm. & Thiers) Vizzini, Angelini, A. Farid, Gelardi, Costanzo & M.E. Sm.
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro

Assessment Notes


P. boletinoides is found in Southeastern USA and central America, in association with pine. Its distribution limits are not well defined, but it has a wide area of distribution, large population size (above 54000 mature individuals) and an ability to adapt to different climates and establish relationships with different pine species. It is likely threatened in the Dominican Republic, but there is no evidence of significant population decline in most of its range, so the species is assessed as Least Concern (LC).

Taxonomic notes

Originally described as Phylloporus boletinoides, P. boletinoides is the type species of the monotypic genus Phylloporopsis, created based on phylogenetic data (Farid et al., 2018).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

P. boletinoides is known from the USA (along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, between Maine and Texas), Belize and the Dominican Republic. However, a wider distribution in Central America and the Antilles Islands is likely (Farid et al. 2018) and corroborated by DNA records of P. boletinoides from soil collected in Cuba (Vasar et al., 2022), which suggest the species may occur is this area.

Population and Trends

P. boletinoides is known from at least 54 sites in North and Central America (MyCoPortal, 2023; GBIF.org, 2023; Farid et al. 2018; Ortiz-Santana et al. 2007), though the total number is expected to be higher. The ability to associate with different Pinus species, and adaptability to different climates (suggested by its distribution) indicate this species may have a large area of suitable habitat and wider distribution. It is likely this species may be under sampled outside of the USA, so the total number of sites is estimated at 5400 to 27000. Following guidelines by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011) and assuming 10 mature individuals exist per site, population size is projected to be between 54000 and 270000 mature individuals.
The local population of P. boletinoides in the Dominican Republic may be decreasing due to host decline, but a decrease in population is not expected in Southeastern USA, where pine is planted for economic purposes.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

P. boletinoides is an ectomycorrhizal species, found in association with Pinus spp. and sometimes in mixed forests of Pinus and Quercus, solitary to gregarious. Fruitbodies may be found on soil or in woody substrata such as rotting wood or the base of living trees. Farid et al. (2018) hypothesize that this lignicolous growth may be a strategy to produce fruitbodies in elevated positions and improve spore dispersal, nutrient uptake and as protection from water-soaked soils, especially in neotropical sites. Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal root samples has corroborated P. boletinoides’ association with Pinus clausa, but it has also been found with other Pinus species, namely P. occidentalis in the Dominican Republic and on a P. taeda stump in the USA. (Farid et al. 2018)
Found in subtropical areas and in altitude in tropical areas (Farid et al. 2018) and in temperate areas in the northern part of its distribution.

Temperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


P. boletinoides may be threatened in part of its range, in the Dominican Republic, since its local host and only pine species in the area, Pinus occidentalis, has been assessed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its small area of occupancy and population decline caused by timber overexploitation (Farjon, 2013a).
On the other hand, in Southeastern USA, where most of P. boletinoides’s distribution is found, pine plantations have an important economic value. Plantations have increased in the past and this is projected to continue in the future (Duden et al., 2017), which may in turn benefit this species. Pinus taeda and Pinus clausa have also been assessed as Least Concern (Farjon, 2013b,c). Still, some concerns over pine health and decline have been raised, caused by abiotic stressors and biotic factors such as outbreaks of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), but this is not expected to be a region-wide threat, and instead occur in localised areas (Coyle et al. 2015).

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Habitat protection of Pinus occidentalis forests in the Dominican Republic is needed to prevent declines of P. boletinoides in this region.

Resource & habitat protection

Research needed

Search efforts in Central America and the Antilles Islands are needed to clarify distribution limits and improve estimates of population size for this species and help establish threats in the region.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted