• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Carolinigaster bonitoi M.E. Sm. & S. Cruz

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Scientific name
Carolinigaster bonitoi
M.E. Sm. & S. Cruz
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro

Assessment Notes

It could be rare and apply for a threatened category, but there is no more information on this species besides its description, which was only in 2018. More records could come in the future - I think more search efforts are needed to establish if this is indeed a rare species or restricted to this region.
Authors have been contacted for any more recent information, awaiting response.


Carolinigaster bonitoi is a sequestrate fungi found in a small region in North Carolina. The species is only known from its description in in 2018 despite the existence of a previous study on Gasteromycetes in the region. This suggests that this species may be rare or at least uncommon, but more information on host preference and targeted search efforts are needed to confirm this and estimate population size and potential distribution. Therefore, the species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD).

Taxonomic notes

Described for the first time in 2018, Carolinigaster bonitoi it is the type species of the monotypic genus Carolinigaster, created based on morphological and molecular data (Crous et al. 2018).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

Only known from 2 sites within Durham County in North Carolina.

Population and Trends

C. bonitoi has only been found in two close sites in Durham County. In its description the authors raise the possibility of a wider distribution in North Carolina’s Piedmont region but note that this species had not been found before despite the existence of a previous study on Gasteromycetes in North Carolina (Crous et al. 2018). Given the lack of previous records this may be a rare species, but without more information (e.g. host preference) and targeted searched efforts in areas of appropriate habitat it is difficult to estimate population size and potential distribution.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

Terrestrial hypogeous fungi, found growing underneath leaf litter in mixed forests with Quercus, Fagus and Pinus on silty-clay soil (Crous et al. 2018).

Temperate Forest



Conservation Actions

Research needed

More research into its ecology, namely host and habitat preference, as well as target search efforts are needed to establish population size and potential distribution.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted