• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Morganella austromontana C.R. Alves, Cortez & R.M. Silveira

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Scientific name
Morganella austromontana
Author
C.R. Alves, Cortez & R.M. Silveira
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Lycoperdaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C1+2a(ii)
Proposed by
Thiago Kossmann
Assessors
Thiago Kossmann, Denis Zabin, Nelson Menolli Jr, Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

This is a rare species currently known only from montane and submontane Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Total population is estimated from 8,000 to 10,000 mature individuals, distributed in ca. 500 sites throughout the Araucaria and Seasonal Semidecidual Forests in Southern Brazil, with each site supporting an average of up to 20 mature individuals and each functional individual counting as 4 mature individuals on average. A population decline of 20-25% is estimated in the next 20 years (3 generations length) due to deforestation and impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle) and climate changes.


Taxonomic notes

Morganella austromontana C.R. Alves, Cortez & R.M. Silveira in Mycotaxon 132(2): 282 (2017).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a rare species currently known only from montane and submontane Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Total population is estimated at 8,000 to 10,000 mature individuals, distributed in ca. 500 sites throughout the Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil, with each site supporting an average of up to 20 mature individuals, with each functional individual counting as 4 mature individuals on average. A population decline of 20-25% is estimated in the next 20 years (3 generations length), due to deforestation, impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle), and impacts of climate change.


Geographic range

Morganella austromontana is known from the montane (including Cloud Forests) and submontane ecosystems of the Araucaria Forests and Seasonal Semidecidual Forests in Southern Brazil (Alvez et al. 2017). It is estimated to be found across other areas with suitable habitat in Southern Brazil, in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná.


Population and Trends

Morganella austromontana is a likely rare species known from only a few collections in 4 sites in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, within Cloud Forests and Araucaria Forest areas, where the species is expected to be restricted. Total population is estimated at up to 4,000 mature individuals, distributed in ca. 200 sites throughout the Araucaria Forests are Seasonal Semidecidual Forests in Southern Brazil, with each site supporting an average of up to 20 mature individuals. A population decline of 20-25% is estimated in the next 20 years (3 generations length) due to deforestation and impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle) and climate changes (Mulligan et al. 2011, Carlucci et al. 2016, Castro et al. 2020).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Morganella austromontana is a saprotrophic gasteroid species found growing on soil in montane and submontane forest ecosystems of Araucaria and Seasonal Semidecidual Forests, including Cloud Forests, in Southern Brazil. It is expected that the species is restricted to these formations, where its habitat conditions are met.

Temperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The species occurs in fragmented, historically affected forests that have lost 97% of its original cover in 100 years, a decline that remains ongoing today. An extensive amount of this loss took place in the last 50 years, due to land conversion for farming and plantations as well as logging activities. Morganella austromontana is threatened with the loss of its habitat from the impacts of climate changes, as well other anthropogenic factors, such as deforestation and introduction of invasive species (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Pinto et al. 2006, Mulligan et al. 2011, Carlucci et al. 2016, Castro et al. 2020).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasShifting agricultureSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Conservation of M. austromontana involves the preservation of its habitat in preserved areas, and the effective enforcement of conservation policies.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

More surveys, aiming at finding the species are needed in its region of appropriate habitat to understand its population and distribution. Analyses of specimens housed in herbaria identified as Morganella from Southern Brazil may also turn out as new records and help understand the species distribution and ecology. Additionally, systematic studies with molecular phylogenetic data can help understand the evolutionary history and relationships of the species, but no sequences are available online.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Alves, C.R., Cortez, V.G., Silveira, R.M.B. 2017. Morganella austromontana sp. nov. from the South Brazilian Plateau, Mycotaxon 132(2): 281-287. doi:10.5248/132.281.

Brooks, T., Balmford, A. 1996. Atlantic forest extinctions, Nature 380: 115.

Carlucci. M.B., Luza, A.L., Hartz, S.M., Duarte, L.D.S. 2016. Forests, shrublands and grasslands in southern Brazil are neglected and have specific needs for their conservation. Reply to Overbeck et al., Natureza & Conservação 14(2): 155-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.08.001

Castro, M.B., Barbosa, A.C.M.C., Pompeu, P.V., Eisenlohr, P.V., Pereira, G.A., Apgaua, D.M.G., Pires-Oliveira, J.C., Barbosa, J.P.R.A.D., Fontes, M.A.L., Santos, R.M., Tng, D.Y.P. 2020. Will the emblematic southern conifer Araucaria angustifolia survive to climate change in Brazil?, Biodiversity Conservation 29: 591-607.


Mulligan, M., Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., Hamilton, L.S. 2011. Modeling the
tropics-wide extent and distribution of cloud forest and cloud forest loss, with
implications for conservation priority. In: M., Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., Hamilton
(eds.). Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, 14–38. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511778384.0
Pinto, L., Bede, L., Paese, A., Fonseca, M., Paglia, A., Lamas, I. 2006. Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha, C.F.D., Bergallo, H.G., Van Sluys, M. and Alves, M.A.S. (eds), Biologia da conservação: Essências, 1st edition, pp. 91-118. Rima Editora.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted