Cyathus magnomuralis is registered exclusively for the Araripe National Forest (Ceará State - Brazil), a forest area inserted in the Caatinga domain (Cruz & Baseia, 2014). Samples were collected in 2012 and observed in the years 2014 and 2015 (not published) making this taxon extremely rare. No synonyms and other scientific names are recorded or used for this species.
Cyathus magnomuralis is a very rare species found exclusively in the National Forest of Araripe (Ceará State, Brazil). This species is threatened by the reduced occurrence area and strong anthropic actions without control of the existing environmental laws of Brazil. These actions are reducing the species’ habitat, resulting in a predicted 61,2% population decline in the next 30 years (3 generations), making this species Endangered (EN A3c; B1+2b).
Cyathus magnomuralis is recorded exclusively to the Araripe National Forest, a forest area covering 39,000 ha in the eastern portion of the 972,000 ha of the Araripe plateau (Ceará State, northeastern part of Brazil). Collections have not been found in other northeast forest areas, neither in Caatinga nor in other biomes after an extensive search. All the known observations were from 2012 to 2015. The species likely occurs only in intact forest environments on decomposing plant debris in natural clearings throughout the Araripe National Forest. It has not been recorded during expeditions in the inner portion of the Araripe plateau, where the vegetation is more open and is mixed with the Cerrado biome, or in expeditions outside the Araripe plateau, where we find other species of Cyathus. Thus, it is likely that Cyathus magnomuralis is a taxon exclusive to the National Forest of Araripe.
All known records of Cyathus magnomuralis are from Araripe National Forest, at an altitude ranging from 760 to 920 m and with the rainy season from January to May (IBAMA, 2004; Ribeiro-Silva et al., 2012). Based on the organism’s ecology, there’s only one population exclusively to the National Forest, growing at the final periods of rainfall in the Araripe plateau (mid-end of May)
The species has an Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of 577 km² and 20 km² of Area of Occupancy (AOO), with a pattern of 2 mature individuals per site, formed by a single fragment of mycelium that develops in small trunks in the vicinity of where the peridiole was fixed during the dispersion process. As it is a fungus that grows on decaying wood, it can be considered generations of 10 years. The population decline was estimated in light of extension loss of suitable habitat for the Caatinga (Beuchle et al., 2015; Câmara et al., 2015; Antongiovanni et al., 2020) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson, 2003; Haddad et al., 2015). Based on this information, we can assume a global habitat loss of 30,6%, and precautionarily assume the double of this value as a population decline of the fungus, reaching 61,2% within three generations (30 years). For these reasons this species is assessed as Endangered under criteria A3c; B1+2b.
Population Trend: Decreasing
Cyathus magnomuralis is found growing on decaying wood in the Araripe National Forest, a phytophygsonomie known as “brejo de altitude” (humid forest inserted in the Brazilian Caatinga domain), with samples collected in May, the end of the period with higher local rainfall. Species of the genus Cyathus are organisms that need more open forest areas, either in natural forest glade or in areas along trail edges, developing in moist and soft plant debris in a more advanced process of decomposition (old plant debris which has suffered initial decomposition by other lignocellulolytic fungi for at least a week or two before). Naturally open (non-deforested) forest areas are important to ensure that the raindrops come into contact with the mature fruiting body, allowing the ejection of the peridiole (a resistant and dormant structure where the spore is produced and stored) at a distance of up to 2 meters from the location of the basidiome.
Because Cyathus magnomuralis is located exclusively in the Araripe National Forest, its distribution is strongly reduced. Large reduction of forestal areas and fragmentation can directly affect the occurrence of the organism in these habitats. The exaggerated fragmentation due to anthropic actions has already reduced the Caatinga biome to half of its total extension, the remaining fragments are influenced by fire, deforestation, agribusiness, and biological invasion, mainly in the northern and northeastern portions of the biome, and specifically for the Araripe National Forest, biopiracy and hunting are strong threats to biodiversity (Câmara et al. 2015; Beuchle et al., 2015; Antongiovanni et al., 2020).
Maintenance of the conservation area of the Araripe National Forest, as well as the creation of new regions that are not yet cataloged and need work involving biodiversity. In addition, control of illegal deforestation is fundamental to protect Cyathus magnomuralis before it’s come to extinction. The effective application of existing environmental laws in Brazil is also an action to be taken by environmental authorities and politicians.
Studies involving Cyathus biodiversity are still needed to see if the occurrence of C. magnomuralis is not underestimated once this species is rare and exclusive to Araripe National Forest. Additional expeditions in the region and surrounding areas may evidence whether Cyathus magnomuralis is endemic to this site or can be found in other Caatinga or Cerrado areas.
No commercial or traditional use was known for the species.