• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • DDPreliminary Assessed
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Tomophagus cattienensis Tham & Moncalvo

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Scientific name
Tomophagus cattienensis
Tham & Moncalvo
Common names
Hoang chi
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
Proposed by
Hoang ND Pham
Comments etc.
Hoang ND Pham, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes


Tomophagus cattienensis is part of a complex of morphologically similar species and is difficult to differentiate in the field. Currently molecular data are needed to identify the species as no morphological characters have been reported to differentiate the species.  Thus, it is not possible to determine the species range, population size, or ecology.  The species is assessed as Data Deficient.

Taxonomic notes

The genus can be confused with species of Ganoderma by non-specialists.  It can be differentiated by the color and texture of the context which is visible when cut.

Pileus bulky, thick, flabelliform, dimidiate (~9 cm in diameter and ~8 cm long) with a very short cylindrical stipe, perennial, occurring singly on rotting trunks of hardwood trees. Crust red-brown or red-coffeate, laccate at first, but later becoming dull brown by a dusty covering of basidiospores, thin, easily broken when cracking or pressing with fingernails. Margin obtuse, rugose, very thick (~3-4 cm), white creamy or pale yellow brown. The crust of the stipe is thicker, more laccate, glossy red-brown. Context thick ~3.7-7.7 cm, up to 11 cm at the base, homogeneous (without stratifications), soft, light, creamy white becoming pale brown upon drying, somewhat cheesy and powdery, slightly striate above the tubes, composed of dimitic hyphae (generative hyphae hyaline, branched, 2.5-3.5 μm in diameter; skeletal hyphae with thick wall, branched, hyaline, 2–3 μm in diameter). Tube layer thin (0.8-1.4 cm), grey brown to cinnamon
brown, unstratified. Pores round or angular, small (2-3/mm) with the surface creamy turning pale grey or dark grey when touched. Basidiospores typically ganodermoid, honey yellow, 17.5-21.5 x 11.5-14.5 μm, truncate-ovate with a yellow round guttule in the center. Basidiospore surface coarse verrucose, pits connected with each other or not completely reticulate (labyrinthine) with thin pillar layer from inner wall. Apex (= germpore aperture) hyaline, very thick, concave (truncate) or convex, opposite to the hilum (= the attachment of spore to sterigma).
Wild collections of T. cattienensis clearly differ morphologically from T. colossus by having glossy light red-brown basidiomata (rather than yellow), a slightly harder crust, a context that turns pale brown upon drying (instead of remaining creamy white), and slightly larger basidiospores (17.5-21.5 x 11.5-14.5 μm versus 14–20 x 9–14 μm). The difference between two species in the shape of chlamydospores produced in cultures grown on PGA medium

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

No records from 2012 to now in the nest and other places.

Geographic range

Only known from a few reports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.  However, because of potential confusion with other Tomphagus and Ganoderma, the species may be more widely distributed.

Population and Trends

The species was described in 2011 from Vietnam, and currently there are 7 known records from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia. However, because of the challenge in identifying this species without DNA data, it is difficult to estimate the distribution and population size of the species.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Perennial, occurring singly on rotting trunks of hardwood trees in tropical rain forest, Known from Dong Nai Biosphere reserve, Vietnam.  The record from Thailand was found on oil palm while the Malaysian specimen was on coconut palm.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


In Vietnam the basidiomata were collected for medicinal use. The artificial cultivation was difficult and took a long time. The one successful culture is no longer living.

Intentional use (species being assessed is the target)

Conservation Actions

None identified

Research needed

Taxonomic studies to understand the species complex and to delineate morphologically.  Further survey work is needed to document its districution and ecology. Additional attempts at cultivating the species is needed.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsOther

Use and Trade

Has potential as a medicinal product.

Medicine - human & veterinary


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted