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Kombocles bakaiana Castellano, T.W. Henkel & Dentinger

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Scientific name
Kombocles bakaiana
Castellano, T.W. Henkel & Dentinger
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
Gonçalves, S.C. & P. Cunha, S.
Westrip, J.R.S.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/238744749/238802749


Kombocles bakaiana is an ectomycorrhizal sequestrate fungus that has only been documented in one locality in Cameroon in 2016. It is possible that the species has a wider distribution since an identical ITS DNA sequence was found in Gabon, but no fruiting bodies were reported. Targeted search efforts are needed to understand the full distribution of the species, and to get a clearer idea of its risk of extinction. At this time, though, this species is assessed as Data Deficient (DD).

Taxonomic notes

Kombocles bakaiana is a sequestrate fungus of the Boletaceae family described for the first time in 2016 (Castellano et al. 2016). Due to its distinct morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, it is the only species of the monotypic genus Kombocles (Castellano et al. 2016, Index Fungorum 2022).

Geographic range

Kombocles bakaiana is a tropical African species. So far it has only been identified in the Dja Biosphere Reserve in Cameroon, but the presence of an identical ITS DNA sequence in an ectomycorrhizal root tip from Uapaca guinneensis in Gabon suggests a wider distribution in the Guineo-Congolian rainforest (Castellano et al. 2016).

Population and Trends

This species is only known from one locality in Cameroon’s Dja Biosphere Reserve. An identical ITS DNA sequence was also found in an ectomycorrhizal root tip from Uapaca guinneensis in Gabon, but no fruiting bodies were recorded. As per Dahlberg and Mueller (2011) guidelines, this cannot be considered a mature individual for population size calculations, but nevertheless suggests a wider distribution of the species.

Population Trend: unknown

Habitat and Ecology

Kombocles bakaiana is a subhypogeous fungus found in lowland mixed tropical rainforest. It is believed to form ectomycorrhizal associations with Uapaca sp. trees (Castellano et al. 2016).


The Dja Faunal Reserve, where Kombocles bakaiana was found, harbours one of the most unperturbed primary rainforests in Africa (IUCN World Heritage Outlook 2020) and its ectomycorrhizal host is not currently threatened (Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) and IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group 2018). There are therefore no immediate threats to this population. Nevertheless, though deforestation within the reserve is low, concerns have been raised over degradation and fragmentation in its periphery and the potential loss of connectivity of the forest within the Congo Basin region due to logging, agriculture, and development projects (e.g. hydroelectric dam) (IUCN World Heritage Outlook 2020). Together with reports of degraded and fragmented areas in the forest cover of the Congo Basin region (Shapiro et al. 2021), this suggests possible threats to other potential subpopulations of Kombocles bakaiana in the region.

Conservation Actions

The only known site for this species is in the Dja Faunal Reserve, a protected rainforest in the Dja Biosphere Reserve in Cameroon. It is also part of the Dja-Odzala-Minkebe Tri-national (TRIDOM), a cross-border conservation initiative to integrate the management of these reserves in Cameroon, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. Increases in survey effort are needed to better understand the distribution and population size of the species. Particularly, this should be done for the Tchimbele site in Gabon’s Mbé National Park where this species ITS sequence was found (Tedersoo et al. 2011) to clarify whether there is a mature population in the area.

Source and Citation

Gonçalves, S.C. & P. Cunha, S. 2023. Kombocles bakaiana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2023: e.T238744749A238802749. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2023-1.RLTS.T238744749A238802749.en .Accessed on 3 January 2024

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