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Lithographa opegraphoides Coppins & Fryday

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Scientific name
Lithographa opegraphoides
Coppins & Fryday
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Fryday, A.
Lendemer, J.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/176076887/177382901


Lithographa opegraphoides is only known from one location and its total Area of Occupancy is 4 km2. Livestock grazing and/or climatic changes could quickly lead to the decline and extirpation of this species. Therefore, it is listed as Vulnerable under criterion D2.

Geographic range

Lithographa opegraphoides is known only from one site on East Falkland, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) from collections made in 1968. This species was not found during recent surveys in 2015 of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) (Fryday et al. 2019). However, the survey was not directed specifically for this species so it may still be extant. Careful examination of ~10,000 collections from southern South America held in the herbarium at Michigan State University did not result in the discovery of any individuals of this species occurring on mainland South America (Fryday and Prather 2001). This thorough investigation supports the conclusion that L. opegraphioides is endemic to the Falkland Islands (Malvinas).

Population and Trends

There is one reported subpopulation from collections made in 1968. No other subpopulations have been reported, and recent surveys did not relocate the species (Fryday et al. 2019). However, the surveys were not extensive enough to suggest the species has been extirpated. The total number of mature individuals is unknown.

Population Trend: unknown

Habitat and Ecology

Lithographa opegraphoides is known from a single low ridge of siliceous rock on East Falkland, Falkland Islands (Malvinas).


Trampling by sheep and cows is a threat to rock-dwelling species (Stenroos and Ahti 1992). An ongoing decrease in summer rainfall and an increase in sunlight as a result of climate change and ozone depletion may negatively impact lichen species throughout the islands (McAdam 2013).

Conservation Actions

This species currently does not have a formal protected status. The two most important conservation actions needed to preserve this species are: 1) protection of the land on which it occurs, and 2) education of local land owners/citizens about the presence of this species in their area. Additionally, further research is needed to ascertain the current status and distribution of this species.

Source and Citation

Fryday, A. 2020. Lithographa opegraphoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T176076887A177382901. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T176076887A177382901.en .Accessed on 3 February 2024

Country occurrence