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Durianella echinulata (Corner & Hawker) Desjardin, A.W. Wilson & Manfr. Binder

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Scientific name
Durianella echinulata
(Corner & Hawker) Desjardin, A.W. Wilson & Manfr. Binder
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
VU A2c+4c
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Attention: Taxonomic position in GFRLI should be changed - in species fungorum and literature, the species is classified as Boletaceae, Boletales, not Hydnangiaceae

Note: For the map, I added centroid point in Borneo Malaysia. There is no specific information for the site where the species was found, and selecting the whole area in Borneo could give a wrong idea of its distribution.


Durianella echinulata is a gasteroid fungi found in Peninsular and Borneo Malaysia. It has only been documented from 3 sites, once each in 1932, 2005 and 2006.  Because of the inconspicuousness of this fungi it is likely that the species is more common than reported and the population size is estimated to be up to 30000 individuals. Though this species’ population size is difficult to estimate due to the absence of more current records, the levels of deforestation in the area suggest that it is likely in decline. Population size reduction due to habitat loss and obligate host trees is expected to be above 30% for a 50 year period and therefore D. echinulata qualifies as Vulnerable A2c+4c.

Taxonomic notes

Only member of the monotypic genus Durianella, created in 2008 using morphological and molecular data (Desjardin et al., 2008). The species was originally named Hydnangium echinulatum (Corner and Hawker, 1953).

Attention: Family on GFRLI differs from Species Fungorum. No longer part of Hydnangiaceae - now Boletaceae.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

This species is known from Peninsular Malaysia (specifically Sungai Nipah in Kemaman, Trengganu, and the Hutan Lipur Sungai Congkak Forest Reserve in Selangor) and from one unspecified site in Malaysian Borneo. (Corner and Hawker, 1953 and Desjardin et al., 2008)

Population and Trends

This species has only been documented from 3 sites in Malaysia, once in 1932, and then in 2005 and 2006. The authors of Desjardin et al. (2008) are not aware of any attempts at finding it since. For this reason, it is difficult to estimate whether this is a rare species, or if it is under documented.
Considering these 3 sites, and the inconspicuousness of this fungus, the population size is estimated at 30000 individuals (3 sites x 100 mature individuals x 1000 multiplier), using the guidelines in Dahlberg and Mueller (2011). However, this assumes that all sites have remained intact, with mature, fruiting individuals, including the one found in 1932 (Sungai Nipah). 
Nevertheless, given the deforestation in Malaysia the population of Durianella echinulata is inferred to be in decline. Data from Estoque et al. (2019) can be used to estimate a 33% decrease in forest cover in Malaysia from 2000 to 2050. This corresponds to 3 generations (50 years for ectomycorrhizal fungi (Dahlberg and Mueller, 2011). For the Borneo island specifically, a decrease in 33% of forest area between 1973 and 2015 is estimated using data from Gaveau et al. (2016). As this fungus is obligately associated with its host trees, the y, population size of D. echinulata is inferred to have decreased more than 30% due to habitat loss and associated loss of hosts, and this loss is predicted to continue.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

D. echinulata is an epigeous gasteroid fungi that grows on soil, solitary or in small clusters. It was found in secondary forest and is thought to be ectomycorrhizal with Shorea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae). (Desjardin et al, 2008)

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


Southeast Asia is a major global deforestation hotspot. Both Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo Island have suffered significant deforestation and conversion of forest areas to oil palm and pulpwood industry plantations in the last decades. (Gaveau et al., 2016) This decline in areas of suitable habitat and obligate hosts is likely causing a decline in population size for Durianella echinulata.

Agro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

One of the locations where D. echinulata was found is part of the forest Hutan Lipur Sungai Congkak Forest Reserve. Nevertheless, this location should be monitored, along with the Trengganu site. It is also essential to protect dipterocarp forests that may constitute a habitat for this species in order to halt its population decline.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area management

Research needed

Known sites for D. echinulata need to be monitored to confirm the presence of fruiting individuals. Search efforts in areas of appropriate habitat and research into its ecology and habitat preferences are also needed to obtain better estimates of distribution and population size of D. echinulata.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyArea-based Management PlanPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted