• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Coniarthonia wilmsiana (Müll. Arg.) Grube

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Scientific name
Coniarthonia wilmsiana
(Müll. Arg.) Grube
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Isaias de Oliveira Junior
Comments etc.
Isaias de Oliveira Junior, Marcela Cáceres

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Previously assigned as Arthonia wilmsiana Müll. Arg. but changed to Coniarthonia wimlsiana by Grube in 2001.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Due to the lack of information worldwide, and being almost 39 years difference between these two records to Brazil, this might be a rare species. This species should be categorized as Endangered (EN)

Geographic range

This is species is known in 4 countries. In Brazil, only two records are known, one to São Paulo state in 1980, and the other the state of Bahia in 2019.

Population and Trends

There are 12 records in GBIF database, half of them in South Africa, and three to the United States of America.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

In Brazil, the species is found in Amazonia and Atlantic Forest.
In South Africa, Costa Rica and Australia is found in areas covered with small trees and shrubland, but also in Australia on tree in tropical

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Dry Shrubland


In Brazil, this species is only recorded in the Atlantic Rainforest, at a hotspot threatened by deforestation and wildfire. In the state of Bahia, where the second record was made, the area is a National Park that went into a wildfire in 2019 and receives visitors. Also, indigenous people live there.

Housing & urban areasTourism & recreation areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder plantationsAgro-industry plantationsRoads & railroadsUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Even knowing that the area in Bahia state is a National Park, this area still suffering anthropic actions, so there is an urge for educational actions directed to the population near the area. The area in São Paulo state is not a protected area so there are houses and hotels near the area where this species was collected, this area also still suffering anthropic actions.

Resource & habitat protectionSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationFormal education

Research needed

The size, distribution, and threats to this species remain unknown due to the scarcity of records. However, accessing new areas may lead to new discoveries to this species.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsArea-based Management Plan

Use and Trade




Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted