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  • Under Assessment
  • LCPreliminary Assessed
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Phaeographis brasiliensis (A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht

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Scientific name
Phaeographis brasiliensis
(A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
Proposed by
Isaias de Oliveira Junior
Isaias de Oliveira Junior
Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes


Phaeographis brasiliensis (Creographa brasiliensis) is a widespread Lichenized fungus known from the Americas, Africa, and Australia.  Growing on bark in humid tropical forests. Its population appears to be increasing since new publications and records are being done. Due to its large distribution and increasing population size, it is assessed as LC.

Taxonomic notes

Current Name: Creographa brasiliensis A. Massal., Atti Inst. Veneto Sci. lett., ed Arti, Sér. 3 5: 322 (1860) [1859-1860]

Synonymy: Phaeographina brasiliensis (A. Massal.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univers. 2: 434 (1923) [1924]; Phaeographis brasiliensis (A. Massal.) Kalb & Matthes-Leicht, Biblthca Lichenol. 78: 148 (2001); Ustalia brasiliensis (A. Massal.) Stizenb., Ber. Tät. St Gall. naturw. Ges.: 155 (1862) [1861-62].

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species is known in 10 different localities, and it’s widespread in the humidity forest with 73 records according to GBIF database. However, in Brazil, this species is found in Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest both areas have been suffering actions, such as wildfire, land suppression, and deforestation, that jeopardize the biodiversity from these areas. Currently, its population seems to be increasing since new records are being done. So, this species might be considered as Least Concern.

Geographic range

This is species is currently known in ten countries. In Brazil, 73 records of this species are known located in the North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, and South of Brazil according to GBIF database.

Population and Trends

There are 214 records in GBIF database, distributed in The USA (95 records), Brazil (73 records), Costa Rica (24 records), and the other records are distributed in small percentages. Since in the last two years the number of records is increasing, the current trend cannot be assured.

Population Trend: Improving

Habitat and Ecology

This species is related to lowland and lower Montane, Tropical, and Subtropical. Also, related to Swamp forests. In Brazil, This species can be found at the Atlantic Rainforest and at the Amazon Rainforest. It’s known that the Atlantic Rainforest originally covered 1.3 km2 of the Brazilian national territory a total of 17 states mainly on the coastal area and the Amazon Rainforest originally covered 4,1 km2 (Tabarelli et al., 2005, Santos and Páglia, 2010). However, those areas suffered intensely anthropic actions in the past and still suffer now. For instance, it’s known that only 28% of the Atlantic Rainforest original area is preserved (Rezende et al., 2018).

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Swamp ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


In Brazil, this species can be found in Atlantic and Amazon Rainforest that are biomes that still suffer anthropic actions in special wildfire, natural and criminal causes, and area suppression. Is stated that 70% of the Brazilian population live currently in areas that once were natural areas of the Atlantic Rainforest (Varjabedian, 2010), and due to its intense suppression this biome was stated once as Brazil’s most threatened biome. Moreover, the structure of the Amazon Rainforest changed in the last century due to different influences that this biome suffered (Phillips, et al. 2008).

Tourism & recreation areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder plantationsAgro-industry plantationsRoads & railroadsUnintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

In Brazil, a few records are related to protected areas; although these same areas still suffering continuous anthropic actions, such as criminal caused deforestation and fire, that cause negative suppression to lichens’ species. So, formal education to the population that lives near those areas law and park managers enforcement can be a start to change the current situation.

Resource & habitat protectionSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationFormal education

Research needed

Actions that are orientated to taxonomy and exploration to new sites need to be stimulated until a better understanding of this species status.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade



Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted