• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Gomphidius mediterraneus D. Antonini & M. Antonini

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Scientific name
Gomphidius mediterraneus
D. Antonini & M. Antonini
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Claudia Perini
Claudia Perini
Pierre-Arthur Moreau
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

So far 17 localities known, but in 2 sites the species disappeared and in 1 it is decreasing. Looking to total number of estimated mature individuals, the spanish subpopulation reach 1.000 and the french-italian 2.000, and nearly 20% of decline. As far habitat is concerned Arbutus unedo is always present.

The assesement could be VU with less than 10.000 matur individuals, 20% decline, C1 or C2b instead of DD


Gomphidius mediterraneus is a rare Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal fungus with a distinct morphology and being easy to identify. It is known from less than 20 sites in Western Mediterranean, from eastern Spain to Italy. The habitat is given by thermophilous broadleaf woods and at all records is observations Arbutus unedo present. In some sites are Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, or P. pinaster observed.

Considering its mapping and the limit of 500 km a spanish (7 localities) and a french-italian (10 localities) subpopulation can be recognized with 1.400 and 2.000 estimated mature individuals respectively, the estimated total number of mature individuals is about 3.400. It seems decreasing in some areas, 2 sites in Tuscany dissapeared; that means nearly 20% less.
Being the habitat common in the mediterranean basin, how “not common” is really this easy to identify species or what are the specific ecological needs?
The species is proposed as VU C1.

Taxonomic notes

Since 2002 Gomphidius tyrrhenicus D. Antonini & M. Antonini,
is replacing the synonym G. mediterraneus being an illegitimate name. Note that Gomphidius mediterraneus Finschow 1978, is a homonym, correctly named Chroogomphus mediterraneus (Finschow) Vila, Pérez-De-Greg. & G. Mir 2006.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Gomphidius tyrrhenicus, a Boletales with gilled hymenophore, is a rare mediterranenan mushroom characterized by a salmon-apricot coloured cap, and in respect to other Gomphidius species by smaller dimensions of the fruitbodies and the habitat. It is linked to thermophilous broadleaved forests dominated by Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Cistus sp.pl. and Arbutus unedo. Some findings are in Cupressus sempervirens formation or in mixed woods with pine. Its trophism as simbiont ECM has to be proven, and it was observed that Suillus bellini often grows nearby.
So far known from Italy and Spain, 11 and 7 sites respectively.
It’s threatened by forest clearing, excessive presence of wild boars and (probably) Cupressus illnesses (due to Seridium cardinale aggression). As far we have observed from the Tuscan area, it is extinct in 2 sites (Le Ornate e La Striscia) and decreasing in Natural Reserve of Berignone.

Geographic range

Gomphidius tyrrhenicus is only known from Western Mediterranean is with 7 known localities in Spain (Cataltinya, Illes Balears, Pais Valencia), 1 in France (Corsica) and 9 in northern and central Italy (region Veneto and Tuscany rispectively).

Population and Trends

The Mediterranean species is rare and has a fragmented distribution in from eastern Spain through Baleares and Corsica to central-northest Italy.

it seems decreasing in some areas, 2 sites in Tuscany dissapeared.

It seems severely threatened, at least in Tuscany, where a long monitoring of the species revealed that the locality of the “typus” (La Striscia, Gambassi Terme) does not longer exist and was probably damaged by the important presence of wild boars.

Another locality is lost because of the enlargement of a road and consequently logging of nearby forest and at the Natural Reserve of Berignone a decrease was noted.

We have the description of only 17 localities, with a observed decline in 1 and 2 extinct areas that means nearly 20% less, and considering its mapping and the limit of 500 km, we can conclude that the species is divided in 2 subpopulations, the spanish (7) and the french-italian one (10).
According to the standards (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011), we can estimate a maximum of 170 localities for this species. The observations reports the production of few fruit bodies (maximum 6), assuming 2 functional fungal genotypes per site and that each functional individual correspond to 10 mature individuals, the estimated total number of mature individuals is about 3.400. If we consider the french-italian subpopulation the estimated total number of mature individuals is 2.000, while the spanish subpopulation 1.400.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Gomphidius mediterraneus is a ectomycorrhizal fungus growing in Mediterranean evergreen woods with Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Cistus monspessulanus from sea level up to 600 m.a.s.l. It appears that Arbutus unedo is always to be present where G. mediterranus grows. Observations in Frace also suggest that A. unedo may be a substitutive host. Comphideus mediterranus is also recorded in mixed stands with conifers, in Italy with Cupressus sempervirens and In Spain in pine forests under Pinus halepensis and/or P. pinaster. Fruitbodies typically appear during October - December, sometimes near Suillus collinitus or S. bellinii.

Temperate ForestMediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation


Gomphidius mediterraneus is negatively affected by forest clearing, road constructions, fire and excessive presence of wild boars and probably the following change of the undergrowth. In some areas, the fungal pathogen Seridium cardinale on Cupressus may be a threat.

Roads & railroadsIncrease in fire frequency/intensityOther threat

Conservation Actions

Resource & habitat protection

Research needed

More research on the specific ecological requirements of this ectomycorrhizal fungis is welcome. Intriguing question are the ecological reasons why this easily identifyable species is so uncommon in the common and widely distributed habitat with Arbutus unedo in the Mediterranean basin.

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade

No use and trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted