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Phallus glutinolens (Möller) Kuntze

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Scientific name
Phallus glutinolens
(Möller) Kuntze
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Trierveiler-Pereira, L., Vieira de Miranda, M., Hernandez Caffot, M.L., Baltazar, J.M., Martins da Cunha, K., Alves-Silva, G., Kossmann, T., Palacio, M. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R.
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/209595336/209596709


Phallus glutinolens is a species endemic to Brazil, occurring in fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern and southeastern regions. Up to now, there are only a few records of the species from six different sites. The total population is estimated at around 4,800 mature individuals, in one subpopulation. Based on the habitat decline within the area, we suspect a population decline around 10% in the last three generations (20 years). Phallus glutinolens is, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable C2a(ii).

Taxonomic notes

Phallus glutinolens (Möller) Kuntze was first described by Möller (1895) in the genus Ithyphallus Gray, a genus erected to accommodate phalloid species without indusium (veil). In 1898, the species was combined to the genus Phallus Junius ex L. by Kuntze. An emendation for the species was published by Trierveiler-Pereira et al. (2009) to add morphological data of mature basidiomata.

Geographic range

Phallus glutinolens was first discovered in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina (Möller 1895). Many years later, the species was found in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (Braun 1932, Rick 1961). More recently, the species was found again in Santa Catarina (Trierveiler-Pereira et al. 2009, 2019; SpeciesLink 2021) and later, for the first time, it was reported from Southeastern Brazil (Fernandes et al. 2021). The species is expected to occur in fragments of Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Records from Argentina, Tucumán province (Wright 1960), are probably misidentifications, since the specimens described have a particular habitat and ecology (growing among grass in open fields) which more closely resembles the habitat described for members of Itajahya Möller (Hernandez Caffot et al. 2018).

Population and Trends

There are eight collections of the species from six different sites. It is likely a rare species, and it is expected to only occur along the Atlantic Forest in the Dense Ombrophilous Forest in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. We estimate that there are up to 400 additional potential sites. This gives a total population estimate of around 4,800 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation (see Dahlberg and Mueller 2011 for methodology). 

The Atlantic Forest has been deforested over decades, and the remaining fragments are suffering from biomass and biodiversity erosion. The Atlantic Forest is one of the most fragmented tropical/subtropical forests in the world, and only around 28% percent of the original forest in Brazil is left, much of it in small, unconnected fragments (Rezende et al. 2018). The population decline was estimated in light of extensive loss of suitable habitat (Rezende et al. 2018) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund and Jonsson 2003, Haddad et al. 2015). Based on this information, we precautionarily assume there has been a habitat loss of at least 10% within the past three generations (20 years) and that this also equates to a population decline of the fungus of at least 10% or more within this timeframe.

Population Trend: decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Phallus glutinolens is a saprotrophic species that grows on wood debris or litterfall, inside preserved forest areas. It has a sweet smell when fresh and a tarlike smell when dry (Trierveiler-Pereira et al. 2009). In Brazil, it is characteristic of the Atlantic Forest, with all records from Ombrophilous Dense Forest near the coast (up to 80 km distant from the coast). The species is not difficult to recognize in the field, being highly detectable since its light-coloured basidiomes contrast with the litterfall and having a characteristic smell (Trierveiler-Pereira et al. 2009). Since the species occurs in wood debris or litterfall, we estimate that three generations = 20 years (see Dahlberg and Mueller 2011).


Phallus glutinolens is directly impacted by Atlantic Forest Biome threats, which has been losing its biodiversity along the time. Only 28% of its natural coverage remains, becoming an extremely patchy ecosystem and secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). The threats involve urbanization, industrial and silvicultural centres that can cause pollution (Galindo-Leal and De Gusmao Câmara 2003). Furthermore, there is a great illegal timber extraction and intensive land use, contributing to Atlantic forest deterioration.

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve the species is the protection of its habitat and creation of new conservation areas to harbor the probable microhabitats to which the Atlantic Forest may be restricted in the future. The preservation of pristine forests could be critical for the maintenance of this species, since it has only been found in preserved areas. Also, forest protection policies must be taken to assure that the protected Atlantic Forest areas reach a mature state. More studies are also necessary to better understand the species' distribution, ecology and population trends.

Use and Trade

No use/trade is known.

Source and Citation

Trierveiler-Pereira, L., Vieira de Miranda, M., Hernandez Caffot, M.L., Baltazar, J.M., Martins da Cunha, K., Alves-Silva, G., Kossmann, T., Palacio, M. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R. 2022. Phallus glutinolens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T209595336A209596709. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2022-1.RLTS.T209595336A209596709.en .Accessed on 4 August 2023

Country occurrence