• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Parmotrema hypoleucinum (J. Steiner) Hale

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Scientific name
Parmotrema hypoleucinum
(J. Steiner) Hale
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Violeta Atienza
Violeta Atienza
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Parmotrema hypoleucinum, is in a state of regression throughout the Mediterranean region due to anthropogenic pressure, mainly the development of tourism, removal of cork and forest fires. It has been red-listed NT in Italy (Nascimbene & al., 2013) and classified EN category in Spain (Valencian Community) Red List because its distribution area is fragmented and some populations have disappeared given the loss of their natural habitat through urban development (Atienza & Segarra, 2000, 2006). It is necessary to pay attention to the reduced and fragmented habitat and populations of this species, their quality as indicator of habitat disturbance, and the fragile status of their epiphytic habitat, which cannot be recolonized if altered by tourist and urban development pressures, cork (Quercus suber) extraction or owing to risk of fire.

Geographic range

A coastal species growing epiphytic on Quercus sp. pl. forests, at 150-400 m altitude, located mainly around Mediterranean coasts, including islands. In Europe is known in Spain Balearic Islands included, France, Italy, Montenegro and also on the Atlantic coast of South Portugal. In North Africa it is known in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. Found also in some tropical and temperate regions of the east coast of North America.

Population and Trends

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Parmotrema hypoleucinum is a lichen species epiphytic on Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex and Q. suber woods. It grows on branches and trunks of Quercus ilex, Q, suber, Q.coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cistus albidus and also on conifers Pinus halepensis, Juniperus phoenicea and J. oxycedrus, Generally prefer the coasts, but can penetrate inland, mostly at 300 to 500 m altitude in situations of high humidity (near rivers or in areas of fog), but always grow in warm locations that are influenced by the nearby sea with periods of high atmospheric humidity (mists, dew). It is frequent in mature, undisturbed Quercus sp. pl. forests but occasional in small disturbed forests between crops.


Conservation Actions

Research needed

Use and Trade


Atienza, V. & Rico, V. (2011) Líquenes y hongos liquenícolas como indicadores de la calidad de hábitat en las Reservas Naturales de Es Vedrà, Es Vedranell i els Illots de Ponent, y en el LIC Cap Llentrisca-Sa Talaia (Archipiélago de Las Pitiusas, Islas Baleares). Informe, Govern de les Illes Balears, Conselleria de Medi Ambient I Movilitat, Espais de Natura Balear. To be published.
Atienza, V. & Segarra JG. (2000) Preliminary Red List of the lichens of the Valencian Community. Forest Snow and Landscape Research 75(3): 391-400.
Atienza, V. & Segarra JG. (2006). Evaluation of the conservation status of Threatened Lichens List from coastal areas of the Valencian Community (Eastern Spain). Cryptogamie, Mycologie 27: 167-183.
Atienza, V., Segarra JG. & Fos, S. (2004) Lichen data as a contribution to the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) in the Valencian Community. http://www.nerium.net/plantaeuropa/Proceedings.htm.
Nascimbene J., Nimis PL. & Ravera S. (2013a) Evaluating the conservation status of epiphytic lichens of Italy: a red list. Plant Biosyst. - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology: Official Journal of the Societa Botanica Italiana, 147:4, 898-904, DOI:10.1080/11263504.2012.748101
Nimis PL. & Martellos, S. 2008. ITALIC the information system on italian lichens. Version 4.0. University of Trieste, Department of Biology. http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted