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Stereopsis vitellina (S. Lundell) D.A. Reid

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Scientific name
Stereopsis vitellina
(S. Lundell) D.A. Reid
Common names
Gele grondkorstzwam
Roothole Rosette
pevníkovka žloutková
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Iršėnaitė, R.
Brandrud, T.-E., Kałucka, I.L. & Svetasheva, T.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/147535240/148142582


Stereopsis vitellina is a yellowish, stipitate corticioid fungus with the reduced stipe and pileus forming fan or rosette shaped structures (Eriksson et al. 1984). The species is probably mycorrhizal and is confined to old growth dry Pinus forests with long continuity of trees and decaying wood with traces of wildfire (Arnolds and Veerkamp 2008). It is vulnerable to clear-cutting, fragmentation, reduces the amount of dead wood and suppressed forest fire.

Sandy oligotrophic pine forests are declining due to land use change and urbanization development, wood harvest and eutrophication coursed by atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The decline in area and quality of suitable habitat possibly exceeded 30% (Brandrud and Bendiksen 2014) during the past 50 years (three generations) and is predicted to continue. The species population is inferred to undergo a similar decline, therefore, assessed as Vulnerable (VU) under criteria A2c+3c+4c.

Taxonomic notes

Stereopsis vitellina is not currently classified in the same order as the generic type but further work is needed to resolve its generic placement (Sjökvist et al. 2014).

Geographic range

Stereopsis vitellina has its core distribution in northern Europe with the main subpopulation in Fennoscandia. In Norway, all localities are in southeastern part. In Denmark, it occurs in central Jutlandia. The species was recently rediscovered in Scotland after many years (Gurney 2015). It is also reported from several localities in the coniferous forest from Czechia, Estonia, Germany, The Netherlands (Arnolds and Veerkamp 2008), Lithuania and in Russian Karelia and Leningrad Oblast (Kotkova 2017).

Population and Trends

Stereopsis vitellina is a very rare species, declining in several European countries. It is currently known from ca 300 localities. In Sweden, where it has been assessed as Vulnerable (VU) (ArtDatabanken), it is estimated a number of localities is around 200. Its potential habitat, old forests of Scots pine on sandy soil, has decreased sharply and continues to decrease due to logging. In the southeastern part of Norway, where it is known from 20 localities, it is also evaluated as VU. In Finland, the species is known from most of the country and considered Least Concern (LC). In Denmark, it is known from seven localities restricted to the northern part. In Scotland, it is known from at least 40 localities 40 sites, all in Caledonian pine forests. In the Netherlands it was recorded from 11 localities before 1990, and four between 1990-2018, and is evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR) (Arnolds and Veerkamp 2008). There are several localities in Belgium, Czechia, Estonia, Germany, Lithuania and Russia.

The real number of localities may be 10 times higher, or even more because of the hidden nature of the fungus. It is estimated as ca 3,000 localities, with a maximum number of mature individuals inferred 60,000 assuming 20 mature individuals in a locality (2 genets x 10 ramets). 

The population and its habitat (old-growth, dry sandy pine forests) is declining and are probably decreasing by more than 30% in a period of three generations (50 years). Such forests are threatened by clear-cutting and the species seems to have difficulties to establish in younger forests after cutting because of removal of coarse woody debris which is suitable for fruit body attachment. Dry sandy pine forests changes due to nitrogen depositions and absence of wildfire.

Population Trend: decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Stereopsis vitellina is probably an ectomycorrhizal fungus usually found in old growth dry pine forests with long continuity of trees and decaying wood, often burned in a wildfire. This forest type is usually rich in threatened fungi (Westerberg and Karström 2009). This stipitate resupinate fungus is found mostly on soil under roots, in mole- or vole galleries, under coarse pine logs overgrown by mosses and shrubs like heather, blueberry, in a hole of charred rootstock of pine.


Stereopsis vitellina is strongly affected by clear-cutting of old-growth pine forests, removal of dead wood, nitrogen fertilization of forests and measure to prevent forests fires.

Conservation Actions

Conservation actions required for this species are the prevention of the decline and fragmentation of old sand pine forests, leaving a sufficient amount of coarse dead wood, and protecting the larger continuous area where the species occurs.

Use and Trade

The species is not known to be used.

Source and Citation

Iršėnaitė, R. 2019. Stereopsis vitellina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T147535240A148142582. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T147535240A148142582.en .Accessed on 1 February 2024

Country occurrence