• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Pyrofomes demidoffii (Lév.) Kotl. & Pouzar

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Scientific name
Pyrofomes demidoffii
(Lév.) Kotl. & Pouzar
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Mitko Karadelev
Mitko Karadelev
Mitko Karadelev
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Vera Hayova, Elias Polemis, Angelina Jorjadze

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?


Geographic range

Dangerous parasite on various Juniper spp. in East Africa and North America. Is is also known from Caucasus, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Siberia, Crimea, and the Balkan Peninsula (Macedonia, Albania and Bulgaria). In Turkey the number of registered species of Pyrofomes was 93. The majority of specimens (67) were collected on Juniperus excelsa, while the rest 26 specimens on Juniperus foetidissima.

Population and Trends

The species exclusively occurs as a parasite on old juniper trees. In Europe is known only from Balkan countries (Macedonia, Bulgaria and Albania) always on Greek juniper. It is a rare species in Europe with restricted area of distribution which following the host distribution. It is known from 5 localities in Macedonia, one in Albania and two in Bulgaria. In one locality in Macedonia (close to Skopje) about 30 % of Greek juniper trees are infected by this parasite.
Forest where it occurs are primarily small areas with a limited number of trees. The host tree is not of conservation concern and is threatened by mass exploitation by the inhabitants, forest fires etc.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Parasitic species on various Juniper spp. in East Africa and North America. Is known from Caucasus, Uzbekistan, Siberia, and Crimea mostly on Juniperus spp. In the Balkan Peninsula, Pyrofomes demidoffii is collected only on Greek juniper (J. excelsa). This species is rare in all the known areas of Greek juniper in Macedonia, Albania, and Bulgaria. Probably also in Greece, but no official data. It is a parasite on old trunks and it causes a considerable damage on Juniper associations.


The species is parasite on old juniper trees usually present in a good developed forests. Reduced amount of habitat should be the main cause of the decline. Main reason for that is the uncontrolled wood cutting and logging for fire and using wood (burning) for production of burnt lime.

Island Golem Grad (Macedonia): there is pressure from tourists, especially in summertime, and threat by cormorants. They made nests on the juniper trees which are dying because of the cormorant guano.

The potential danger of juniper forests fires is quite significant.

Conservation Actions

Public awareness should be promoted, especially targeting on wood loggers taught about the importance of these ecosystems, and state forest services and management bodies taught about the effective wardening of juniper forests.

Research needed

Use and Trade


Ryvarden L. & JohansenI., 1980 - A Preliminary Polypore Flora of East Africa. Fungiflora. Oslo, 636 p.
RyvardenL. & GilbertsonR., 1993- European Polypores (Part 1-2). Fungiflora. Oslo, 743 p.
BondartsevA.S., 1971 - The Polyporaceae of the European USSR and Caucasia. Jerusalem, 896 p.
Karadelev M., 1995 - Lignicolous Aphyllophorales on Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in the Republic of Macedonia. Mycotaxon, vol.lvi: 467-472.
Karadelev M., 1998 - Fungal biodiversity in Macedonia I. with a special regard to substrates with a disjunctive range and relict origin. Mycologia Montenegrina, I-n: 49-55.
Gyosheva M. (2006). Red List of fungi in Bulgaria. Mycologia Balcanica 3: 81–87

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted