• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Limnoperdon incarnatum G.A. Escobar

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Scientific name
Limnoperdon incarnatum
G.A. Escobar
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro

Assessment Notes

Attention: Order should be Agaricales (according to species Fungorum and phylogenetic data)


L. incarnatum is a freshwater fungal species that grows on floating hardwood. It is not commonly recorded but appears to have a very wide distribution and is likely undersampled. Population size is estimated at 42000 mature individuals with no evidence of population decline, so the species is assessed as Least Concern (LC).

Taxonomic notes

L. incarnatum is so far the only accepted species in the monotypic genus Limnoperdon and family Limnoperdaceae, established based on its distinct morphological characteristics (Escobar et al., 1976). It has since been placed within Agaricales using phylogenetic data (Matheny et al., 2006). A more recent study reported the presence of a second Limnoperdon species in the River Nile in Egypt (Abdel-Aziz, 2016), but it has not yet been described.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

Even though its distribution limits are not well defined, L. incarnatum appears to have a very wide distribution. So far it has been recorded in United States, Canada, Japan, South Africa and Austria (Michaelides et al., 1982; Webster et al., 1993; GBIF.org, 2023).

Population and Trends

L. incarnatum has only been recorded in a few sites (around 13), but the total number of locations is likely much larger considering the very inconspicuous fruitbodies (small globose/subglobose basidiocarps, 1mm or less in diameter) and wide distribution and area of potential habitat. By applying a large multiplier for unknown sites (x1000), and following guidelines by Dahlberg and Mueller (2011), population size is estimated at 42000 mature individuals.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

Grows on floating hardwood in freshwater habitats, such as marshes, ponds and margins of rivers and streams but also in rice paddy fields and Brackish water. Most observations of its fruitbodies have been made in laboratory conditions on previously submerged twigs. It has been recorded growing on Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia but did not grow on Pinus strobus under similar conditions. (Michaelides et al., 1982; Webster et al., 1993)

Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]Permanent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/PoolsIrrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]


No threats have been identified for this species.

Conservation Actions

No specific conservation actions are needed for this species.

Research needed

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted