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Amanita caesarea (Scop.) Pers.

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Scientific name
Amanita caesarea
(Scop.) Pers.
Common names
Caesar's Amanita
Amanite des Césars
muchomurka císarka
Veza e Çezarit
muchomor cesarski
muchotrávka cisárska
muchomůrka císařka
Cucco, ovulo buono
Цезарский гриб
ნიყვი, სოკოწითელა, სოკოკვერცხა
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
Gonçalves, S.C.
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/125433663/125435485


Amanita caesarea is a common, widespread, and well-known edible ectomycorrhizal mushroom typically associating with oaks and other hardwood species in a variety of habitats from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins. Although included in Red Lists of many European countries, A. caesarea doesn’t meet any of the criteria for a threatened category on a global scale. It has a large distribution and host breadth and there is no evidence of large-scale population decline. It can be locally very abundant where suitable habitat exists. Therefore, it is assessed as Least Concern (LC).

Geographic range

The species has its native distribution range around the Mediterranean and the Black Sea basins. It is known from northern Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia), the southern part of Europe (absent from The Netherlands), UK and Scandinavia), the Caucasus region (Georgia, Turkey), Ukraine, Crimea and the Russian Caucasus, mostly Krasnodar Kray, Adygea Republic. Extinct from Poland. Contrary to some reports, a comprehensive study by Sánchez-Ramírez et al. (2015) showed that the species does not occur in North or Central America nor in East Asia.

Population and Trends

Amanita caesarea has been reported from more than 500 sites in Europe (2015) and the total number, including yet unrecorded sites, is estimated to be at least 10-fold higher. In Europe, reported population trends diverge: while the species is nationally red-listed in many countries of occurrence based on population decline (e.g. Austria, Switzerland, Bulgaria), some countries reported stable populations (e.g. France, Greece), and Romania and Belgium reported increases (Fraiture and Otto 2015). Population size and trends in northern Africa, Turkey and the Caucasus are unknown. In brief, there is no evidence of population decline on a global scale. The species can be locally abundant where suitable habitat exists principally in Mediterranean region.

Population Trend: unknown

Habitat and Ecology

Amanita caesarea is ectomycorrhizal with trees in the Fagaceae, typically Quercus (Q. cerris, frainetto, gussonei, petraea, pubescens, robur, suber, ilex, rotundifolia), but also  Fagus and Castanea. It is also reported to associate with Carpinus, Corylus (Spain), Tilia (Serbia), mixed forests with broad leaf trees and Abies borisii-regis and A. cephalonica (Greece) or with Picea in Romania or Pinus, e.g., Italy and Germany). It can be found in a variety of habitats, mainly in deciduous to sclerophyllous forests dominated by Quercus, but also other mixed forests (dehesas (Spain), montados (Portugal), macchia and heaths, as well as extensively managed grasslands with solitary trees (Slovenia). Lowlands to lower mountain regions, only seldom above 1200 m. In Europe, the species occurs in the following Natura 2000 habitats (codes): 4030, 6310, 9110, 9130, 9150, 9160, 9170, 91F0, 91G0, 91H0, 91I0, 91L0, 91M0, 91W0, 91AA, 9230, 9240, 9260, 9270, 9280, 9330, 9340.


Identified threats in Europe mostly relate to forestry (e.g. increased fertilization) and airborne nitrogen deposition. Unsustainable harvesting has also been reported (Fraiture and Otto 2015).

Conservation Actions

Many populations are located within the European Natura 2000 network of sites and hence are thought to be protected. The species is included in national Red Lists in Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France (regional Red List), Germany, Hungary, Montenegro, Poland, Russia (regional Red List), Serbia, Slovakia, Switzerland and Ukraine, and protected by law in some (Croatia, Czechia, Germany, Russia (regional), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine).

Use and Trade

One of the most sought-after edible mushrooms in the Mediterranean. Commercially harvested.

Source and Citation

Gonçalves, S.C. 2019. Amanita caesarea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T125433663A125435485. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T125433663A125435485.en .Accessed on 1 February 2024

Country occurrence