• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • Preliminary Assessed
  • NTAssessed
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Cortinarius bulliardii (Pers.) Fr.

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Scientific name
Cortinarius bulliardii
(Pers.) Fr.
Common names
Hotfoot Webcap
Cortinaire de Bulliard
Cortinaire à pied de feu
Feuerfüßiger Gürtelfuß
Zasłonak Bulliarda
Паутинник Бульяра
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Category
NT A2c + A3c + A4c
Proposed by
Tatyana Svetasheva
Claudia Perini, Tatyana Svetasheva, Sergey Volobuev, Tor Erik Brandrud, Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber
Gregory Mueller
Elias Polemis
Comments etc.
Nicolas Schwab, Jan Merta, Armin Mešić, Izabela L. Kalucka, Susana C. Gonçalves, Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes


Cortinarius bulliardii is a rare European species which mycorrhiza association mostly with Quercus, sometimes with Fagus and Corylus. It is clearly calciphilic species inhabiting mainly natural or near-natural oak and beech forests growing on the limestone soil. The mentioned type of habitat has an ongoing and significant declining due areal loss and decreased ecological conditions (transformation to other types of habitats, clear-cutting, eutrophication, oak deseases, etc). The characteristic appearance and belonging to the rich fungal element of this type of habitat make it possible to consider this species as an indicator of valuable natural territories and “mushroom hotspots”.
Global red-list assessment: There are approx. 350 known localities/sites in Europe, the estimated total number can to be approx. 3500 localities, which corresponds with approx. 70,000 mature individuals. The decline of the calcareous Quercus forests in the 50 years evaluation period is estimated to be > 20%. Based on this, the species is assessed as NT according to the A-criterion.

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Cortinarius bulliardii is a rare characteristic species associated mostly with mature calcareous broadleaved forests which are everywhere undergoing reduction and degradation. This species can be a good indicator of valuable forest communities containing at the same time many other rare species of different groups of organisms.

Geographic range

Cortinarius bulliardii is a European species, widely distributed within the temperate-mediterranean European Quercus-Fagus range, known from 23 countries, including European part of Russia, east to the Tula region (Russia), and North to S Sweden (Consiglio et al, 2003; Cortinarius bulliardii.., 2021;  Gyosheva et. al., 2006; Knutsson, T. 2014, Krieglsteiner, Gminder, 2010; Mahiques, 2000; Nezdojminogo, 1996; Peric, Peric, 2005; Rebriev et al., 2012, Tănase, Pop A, 2005; Tkalčec et al., 2008). Reports from North America are not verified by sequencing, and probably represents another species.

Population and Trends

According to GBIF data and other listings, C.bulliardii is recorded from at least 28 sites in southern Sweden, 28 in France, 25 in Spain, 20 in Denmark, 17 in UK, 100 in Germany, 7 in Slovenia.  Some countries are not represented in GBIF, and some of those already mentioned above are only partially represented, but they have data on this species distribution in their national and regional databases: there are 46 known localities in Austria, about 50 in Switzerland, 60 in Italy, 30 in Hungary, 8 in Russia, and 1 in Albany. Based on this, there are an estimated approx. 400 known localities/sites in Europe, with the largest number of sites in the countries where limestone soils and appropriate forest communities are widespread.  Despite the relatively large number of localities in some countries, a decline was noted, and the species is redlisted in Austria, Bulgaria,  Denmark, Germany, Montenegro, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland (National Red Lists.., 2021; ECCF, 1998-2018), as well as in some regions of Russia (Order..,2020).
Habitat assessments at EU biogeographical level shows that the mentioned habitats (9160, 9170,9150) are assessed as Unfavourable-Inadequate or Unfavourable-Bad due to indicators of structure and function and poor future prospects (European Environment Agency, 2013-2018). An especially alarming situation is observed in oak calcareous forests, which have ongoing and significant decline from 1960s, due to oak deseases, areal loss, abandment of traditional management like grazing, forestry (Grigorjev et al. 2000, Knutsson 2014).
Taking in account all needed evidence the estimated population size in Europe is approx 4000 localities, that is approx. 80,000 mature individuals. Estimated habitat loss in the past and ongoing is >20% over the 50 years covering three generations of this species. 

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Cortinarius bulliardii is a mycorrhizal symbiont of Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana,  sometimes it forms mycorrhiza with Tilia cordata.  It inhabits rather warm temperate (or less often boreonemoral) frondose forests and is restricted mostly to old-growth natural communities formed on calcareous soil. It is considered to be a thermophilous species preferring warm and relatively dry oak and beech forest on limestone ground.
According to Nature 2000 habitats it’s confined to oak and beech calcareous forests of codes 9150 (Medio-European limestone beech forests of the Cephalanthero-Fagion), 9160 (Sub-Atlantic and medio-European oak or oak-hornbeam forests of the Carpinion betuli), 9170 (Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests). In Eastern Europe, including the European part of Russia,  it is found mainly in oak forests (or polidominant and mixed forest with oak) growing on limestone slopes of southern exposure. In Mediterranean region also growing in evergreen oak forests

Temperate Forest


The main threats for this species and it’s habitat are forestry, including clear-cutting of its habitat, conversion into conifer or poplar plantations, limestone mining, transformation of natural forest communities into parks and other recreation zones.  Intense anthropogenic impact, including nitrogen deposition as well as tourism due to mass visiting and trampling of the leaf litter, can also be a direct threat to the population decline, since disturbance or destruction of litter leads to degradation of mycelium, which usually spreads in the upper layer of the soil and the lower layer of the litter. The spread of oak decline (Phytopthora desease) throughout the region is a serious emerging threat. Drought due to changing climate in some parts of its rage are stressing its host.

Mining & quarryingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesOther ecosystem modificationsNamed speciesNutrient loadsType Unknown/UnrecordedDroughts

Conservation Actions

The species is included in red lists of Switzerland (Vu), Sweden (Vu), Croatia (NT), Austria (NT), Bulgaria (En), Denmark (En), Germany (Vu), , Romania (Vu) (National Red Lists.., 2021; ECCF, 1998-2018,  SLU Artdatabanken, 2020, Tkalčec et al, 2008; Dämon, Krisai-Greilhuber, I. 2017, Gyosheva, M.M. et. al., 2006; Den danske Rødliste, 2019, Rote-Liste-Zentrum, 2021, Tănase, Pop, 2005), also in regional Red Data Books of Russia (Order.., 2020).
The conservation actions suggested is mainly focused on area/site protection from logging and transformation of habitats, as well as limestone mining in the location of the species and the surrounding area, regulation of recreational activities leading to the destruction of leaf litter.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area management

Research needed

More data on distribution and monitoring of C. bulliardii are needed as well as trends of state of calcareous Carpinus-Quercus forests are nesessary.  Taxonomic research is needed to clarify the phylogenetic relations of European,  American and Japan populations.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

No use or trade is known.



Consiglio G., Antonini D. & Antonini M., 2003: Il Genere Cortinarius in Italia. Parte prima, 50 schede. AMB-Fondazione Centro Studi Micologici, Vicenza (VI): 64 pp.
Cortinarius bulliardii (Pers.) Fr. in GBIF Secretariat, (2021). GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei accessed via GBIF.org on 2021-04-26.
Cortinarius (Tel.) bulliardii (Pers. :Fr.) Fr. (ID=1469), 2021. SwissFungi Verbreitungskarte. URL https://www.wsl.ch/map_fungi/search?taxon=1469&start=1991&end=2021&lang=de
Gyosheva, M.M. et. al., 2006. Red list of fungi in Bulgaria. Mycologia Balcanica 3: 81–87
Dämon, W. and Krisai-Greilhuber, I. (2017). Die Pilze Österreichs, Verzeichnis und Rote Liste 2016
Den danske Rødliste, 2019 URL https://bios.au.dk/forskningraadgivning/temasider/redlistframe/soeg-en-art/#9281
Grigorjev A., Zakharov V., Berlova O.  Forest Bulletin of Russia №16, December, 2000 (In Russian). http://www.pandia.ru/text/77/485/2455.php
European Environment Agency, 2013-2018, URL https://nature-art17.eionet.europa.eu/article17/habitat/summary/?period=5&group=Forests&subject=9160®ion;=
European Council for the Conservation of Fungi (ECCF) - Redlist, 1998-2018. URL http://www.eccf.eu/redlists-en.ehtml
Knutsson, T. & Fritz, Ö. 2014. Svampar i kalkrika ädellövmarker på Öland: Inventeringar av djävulssopp, sötdoftande spindling och blomspindling 2012 – 2013. Länsstyrelsen i Kalmar län. Meddelande nr 2014:04.
Krieglsteiner, G.J., Gminder, A. 2010. Die grosspilze Baden-Württemberg. Band 5, Ständerpilze, Blätterpilze III. Ulmer Verlag. Stuttgart.
Maniques, R. (2000). Flora chorological I bibliogràfica dels Cortinaris Iberoinsulars. I. Bull. Soc. Micol. Valenciana 4-5: 147-364.
Nezdojminogo, E. L. 1996. Definitum Fungorum Rossiae. Ordo Agaricales. Fasc. 1. Familia Cortinariaceae. St. Petersburg: Nauka. (In Russian)
Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Tula Oblast dated April 21, 2020 No. 193-o “On approval of the List of flora objects included in the Red Book of the Tula Oblast” (In Russian) URL http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/7101202004240001?index=9&rangeSize=1
Peric, B., Peric. O. (2005). The Provisory Red List of Endangered Macromycets of Montenegro. URL http://www.eccf.eu/Montenegro05.pdf
Rebriev et al., 2012. Mycobiota of arid areas of the South-West of Russia. Rostov-on-Don, Southern Federal University. 88 pp. (In Russian)
Rote-Liste-Zentrum, 2021, URL https://www.rote-liste-zentrum.de/de/Grosspilze-Basidiomycota-p-p-Ascomycota-p-p-1774.html#idx_c
SLU Artdatabanken, 2020. Rödlista 2020 - övergripande delar. URL https://artfakta.se/naturvard/taxon/cortinarius-bulliardii-429
Tănase C., Pop A., 2005, Red List of Romanian Macrofungi Species, Bioplatform – Romanian National Platform for Biodiversity, Editura Academiei Române (ISBN 973-27-1211-2), Bucureşti: 101-107
Tkalčec Z., Mešić A., Matočec N. & Kušan I. (2008). Crvena knjiga gljiva Hrvatske (Red Book of Croatian Fungi). Državni zavod za zaštitu prirode i Ministarstvo kulture, Zagreb.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted