• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Elaphomyces muricatus Fr.

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Scientific name
Elaphomyces muricatus
Common names
jelenka pestrá
vortet hjortetrøffel
Gevlekte hertentruffel / stekelige hertentruffel
marbled deer truffle / rough-coated elaphomyces
nystyinen männyntryffeli / nystymaahikas
truffe du cerf muriquée
Stacheliger Hirschtrüffel
jeleniak nastroszony
marmorerad hjorttryffel
srnka ježatá
Raibā briežtrifele
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
David Minter
David Minter
Inita Daniele, Vladimír Kunca, Marija Katarzyte
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

A widespread species rare in some areas, common in others, but with some evidence of decline as a result of pollution and disturbance of habitats.

Geographic range

ASIA: China (Fujian), Japan, Tibet. CENTRAL AMERICA: Costa Rica. EUROPE: Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Rumania, Russia (Smolensk), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, UK, Ukraine. NORTH AMERICA: Canada (Alberta, Quebec), Mexico, USA (California, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee). Altitude: generally a species of lowlands, uplands and lower mountainous sites, with records up to 1200 m.

Population and Trends

Because trained dogs can find hypogeous fungi more easily than humans, estimates of abundance of all hypogeous species tend to be higher in Mediterranean countries where there is a tradition of using such animals. Described by MONTECCHI & SARASINI (2000) as rather common everywhere in Europe in deciduous or coniferous woods. Described by ŁAWRYNOWICZ (2006) as common in central and northern Europe. Described by PEGLER, SPOONER & YOUNG (1993) as “common” and “widespread” in the British Isles. Reported to be the most common hypogeous fungus in parts of North Carolina and Tennessee, USA (BIRD & MCCLENAGHAN, 2005). The species has been listed as declining for Poland, as threatened in the Netherlands, and as endangered for Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. There are reports that it is rare in Hungary (TOTH, 1999). The species is sensitive to disturbance and its populations in northern Alberta (DANIELSON, 1983) may be adversely affected by surface mining to recover bitumen from oil-bearing sands. Using IUCN Categories and criteria, MINTER (2007) evaluated the conservation status of this species as Near Threatened.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

This speciesis mycorrhizal thereby playing an important rôle in forest health. BRAND has demonstrated that this species forms mycorrhizas with Fagus sylvatica (in AGERER, 1987-2002). Synthesis of mycorrhizas between this species and Pinus sylvestris was discussed by MILLER & MILLER (1984). The species has been observed in January, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December. Associated plants: Abies fraseri; Alnus glutinosa; Betula pendula (root); Betula sp.; Calluna vulgaris; Castanea sativa; Castanea sp.; Castanopsis sp.; Corylus avellana; Fagus sylvatica; Fagus sp.; Fraxinus sp.; Monotropoideae spp.; Picea abies; P. sitchensis; Picea sp.; Pinus banksiana; P. sylvestris; Pinus sp.; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Quercus garrayana; Q. ilex; Q. petraea; Q. rubra; Quercus sp.; Tsuga sp.; Vaccinium myrtillus. Other associated organisms: Cordyceps capitata (parasitizing ascomata,  = Elaphocordyceps capitata); C. ophioglossoides (parasitizing ascomata, = Elaphocordyceps ophioglossoides); Muscopsida; Sciurus vulgaris (eating ascomata). Other substrata: soil (about 3 cm deep).


Pollution. Like other members of this genus, E. muricatus accumulates radionuclide pollution. There is a specific reports of accumulation of 137Cs pollution by this species in Switzerland (VÖLKLE, AYER, JUNGCK, VANZETTI & EGLI, undated). In northern Alberta (Canada), this species has been reported as sensitive to disturbance and may be adversely affected by surface mining.

Conservation Actions

Research needed

Use and Trade


AGERER, R. Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhizae 1st-12th del., Einhorn-Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd (1987-2003). AINSWORTH, G.C. An Introduction to the History of Mycology: Cambridge, London, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 359 pp., 106 figs (1976). BELKE, G. Krótki rys historyi naturalnéj Kameńca Podolskiego. Biblioteka Warszawska 2: 539-563 (1858). BIRD, C. & MCCLENAGHAN, C. Morphological and functional diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi on Roan Mountain (NC/TN). Southeastern Naturalist 4 (1): 121-132 (2005). BONTEA, V. Ciuperci Parazite şi Saprofite din România 2: 471 pp. (1986). CASTELLANO, M.A. & TRAPPE, J.M. Mycorrhizal associations of five species of Monotropoideae in Oregon. Mycologia 77 (3): 499-502 (1985). DANIELSON, R.M. Ectomycorrhizal association in jack pine stands in northeastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany 62 (5): 932-939 (1984). DODGE, C.W. The higher Plectascales Annales Mycologici 27: 145-184 (1929). MEHMANN, B., BRUNNER, I. & BRAUS, G.H. Nucleotide sequence variation of chitin synthase genes among ectomycorrhizal fungi and its potential use in taxonomy. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60 (9): 3105-3111 (1994). GIZHYTSKA, Z.K. [as ГІЖИЦЬКА, З.К.] Матеріяли до мікофльори України. Вісник Київського Ботанічного Саду 10: 4-41 (1929). HAWKER, L.E. British hypogeous fungi. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 237: 429-546, 29 figs (1954). HAWKER, L.E. Revised annotated list of British hypogeous fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 63: 67-76 (1974). HENDERSON, D.M. & WATLING, R. Chapter 15, Fungi. In A.C. Jermy & J.A. Crabbe [eds], The Island of Mull, a Survey of its Flora and Environment pp. 1-73 (1978). JURC, D., PILTAVER, A. & OGRIS, N. Glive Slovenije / Fungi of Slovenia. Studia Forestalia Slovenica 124: i-vi, 1-497 (2005). ŁAWRYNOWICZ, M. Hypogeous fungi collected in Estonia in 1989 and 1999. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica 43: 67-71 (2006) [available on-line at http://www.ut.ee/ial5/fce/FCE_eLibrary/FCEeBooks/FCE42eBook.pdf]. MEDEL, R., GUZMÁN, G. & CHACON, S. Especies de macromycetos citadas de México IX. Ascomycetes, parte III: 1983-1996. Acta Botanica Mexicana 46: 57-72 (1999). MILLER, S.L. & MILLER JR, O.K. Synthesis of Elaphomyces muricatus + Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizae. Canadian Journal of Botany 62 (11): 2363-2369 (1984). MINTER, D.W. Elaphomyces muricatus. IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria No. 1718 (2007). MONTECCHI, A. & SARASINI, M. Funghi Ipogei d’Europa (Trento, Italy: Associazione Micologica Bresadola): [i-vi] 714 pp. (2000). MUSKETT, A.E. & MALONE, J.P. Catalogue of Irish fungi – IV. Ascomycotina. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy Section B – Biological, Geological and Chemical Science 83 (17): 151-213 (1983). NOHRSTEDT, H.-Ö. & KERS, L.E. Ethylene production by ascocarps of Elaphomyces species. Oecologia 59 (2-3): 409-410 (1983). PEGLER, D.N., SPOONER, B.M. & YOUNG, T.W.K. British Truffles a Revision of British Hypogeous Fungi (Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens): [i-viii], 216 pp., 26 plates (1993). SHENG, X.-A. [The genus Elaphomyces and its ecological distribution in Xizang]. Mycosystema 18 (3): 238-242 (1999). THOEN, D. & SCHULTHEIS, B. Checklist provisoire des champignons hypogés du Luxembourg. Bulletin de la Société des Naturalistes Luxembourgeois 103: 31-44 (2003). TOTH, B. Gombaconologiai vizsgalatok a Gyepes-volgyben (Heves-Borsodi dombsag) [A fungal coenological study in Gyepes-valley (Heves-Borsodi Hills, Hungary)]. Mikologiai Kozlemenyek 38 (1/3): 25-52 (1999). TURNBULL, E. Not only nuts in May… Mycologist 9 (2): 82-83 (1995). VÖLKLE, H., AYER, F., JUNGCK, M, VANZETTI, T. & EGLI, S. Teneur en 137Cs de trois espèces de truffe de cerf (Elaphomyces) provenant de huit forêts de Suisse. B.5.2.1-B.5.2.6 (undated). [reference untraced, see internet links below].

See also the following internet pages:

http://beta.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q00642 (source of protein chitin synthase);
http://perso.orange.fr/champignons.fc/odeurs/cleascos.htm (identification key based on scents);
http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/hcol/fungi/index.asp (occurrence in Costa Rica);;=&q=cache:DvSBAenIP74J:www.bag.admin.ch/strahlen/ionisant/radio_env/pdf-2003/Chap-5-2.pdf+“Elaphomyces+granulatus” (uptake of 137Cs radioactive pollution in Switzerland);
http://www.asturnatura.com/articulos/revista/catalogohongosast.pdf (occurrence in Spain);
http://www.cegep-sept-iles.qc.ca/raymondboyer/champignons/Asco_Dermatose.htm (occurrence in Quebec, Canada);
http://www.deemy.de/Taxa/ItemDescription.cfm?ItemID=59 (illustration of mycorrhizal system);
http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/fungi/ascomycotina/elaphomycetales/elaphomycetaceae/elaphomyces/index.html (occurrence in Finland);
http://www.gljive.com/aktivnosti/nase_aktivnosti/dani_gljiva_2006_-_izvještaj/ (occurrence in Serbia);
http://www.grzyby.pl/czerwona-lista-skorowidz-lat.htm (red listing for Poland);
http://www.manitari.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?p=4053&sid=6997572de83c299781432606d905c294 (occurrence in Greece);
http://www.soortenbank.nl/soorten.php?soortengroep=paddenstoelen&id=144&menuentry=soorten (red listing in the Netherlands);
http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Truffle (use as an aphrodisiac);
www3.lanuv.nrw.de/static/infosysteme/roteliste/pdfs/s259.pdf (red listing for Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany).

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted