• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Cladidium bolanderi (Tuck.) B.D. Ryan

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Scientific name
Cladidium bolanderi
(Tuck.) B.D. Ryan
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
James Lendemer
James Lendemer
Comments etc.
Toby Spribille, Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Cladidium bolanderi (common name: Bolander’s Fog Fingers) is endemic to the coastal western United States where it is known from a small geographic area mostly from historical populations. The range of the species has likely been significantly decreased by historical conversion of natural habitats and is further threatened by multiple forces.

Geographic range

Cladidium bolanderi is endemic to coastal western North America (central California to central Oregon) where it is known from a small geographic area mostly from historical populations.

Population and Trends

Demographic studies are needed to assess and monitor populations sizes. Extant populations are currently presumed to be stable, although many populations are known only from historical occurrence data.

Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology

This species occurs only on non-calcareous rocks and soil in areas with to regular fog immersion on or near the coast.

Temperate Forest


Historical activities including large scale conversion of natural habitats, intensive grazing, logging, mining, spread of invasive species, and recreation have led to habitat degradation throughout the region where this species occurs. Current threats include further conversion of natural habitats, habitat shifts/alteration due to climate change, air pollution, road/utility construction and maintenance, recreation and other activities that significantly disturb coastal cliff or bluff lichen communities. An additional threat is increased frequency and intensity of wildfires.

Residential & commercial developmentHousing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasLivestock farming & ranchingEnergy production & miningMining & quarryingTransportation & service corridorsRoads & railroadsUtility & service linesHuman intrusions & disturbanceRecreational activitiesNatural system modificationsFire & fire suppressionIncrease in fire frequency/intensitySuppression in fire frequency/intensityInvasive & other problematic species, genes & diseasesInvasive non-native/alien species/diseasesPollutionAir-borne pollutantsAcid rainSmogGeological eventsEarthquakes/tsunamisAvalanches/landslidesClimate change & severe weatherHabitat shifting & alterationTemperature extremes

Conservation Actions

Conservation actions that can be taken including educating and training land managers and local botanists to identify the species so we can monitor its health as well as contracting experts to conduct detailed monitoring at various time intervals (every 5 to 10 years), federally listing the species as endangered in the United States, and restoration of the habitats in which the species occurs. Further conservation of lands where existing populations occur, and intensive searches of inaccessible coastal areas, are also needed.

Land/water protectionSite/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementInvasive/problematic species controlHabitat & natural process restorationSpecies recoveryEducation & awarenessFormal educationTrainingAwareness & communicationsLaw & policyLegislationNational level

Research needed

Further research that will aid in the conservation of this species includes intensive searches for additional extant populations, population assessments and monitoring, population genetics studies, and ecological studies that incorporate threats to the species. Additionally, a species recovery plan needs to be written.

ResearchPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreatsActionsConservation PlanningSpecies Action/Recovery PlanArea-based Management PlanMonitoringPopulation trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade


Brodo, IM/ Duran Sharnoff, S/ Sharnoff, S 2001: Lichens of North America. - Yale University Press, New Haven & London. 795 pp.

Ryan, B 1989: The genus Cladidium (lichenized Ascomycotina). - Mycotaxon 34(2): 697-712.

Ryan, BD/ Nash III, TH 1997: Placodioid taxa of Lecanoraceae sensu Zahlbr. (lichenized Ascomycotina) in North America: taxa excluded from Lecanora subg. Placodium. - Nova Hedwigia 64(3-4): 393-420.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted