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Lamelloporus americanus Ryvarden

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Scientific name
Lamelloporus americanus
Author
Ryvarden
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Meruliaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2023-09-14
IUCN Red List Category
EN
IUCN Red List Criteria
A3c
Assessors
Læssøe, T., Newman, D. & Salvador Montoya, C.A.
Reviewers
Drechsler-Santos, E. & Martins da Cunha, K.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/76256213/245801795

Justification

Lamelloporus americanus is a saprophytic species that grows on dead trunks restricted to cloud forests in Central America and western South America, associated only with high altitude environments, above 1,000 m asl, being dependent on the specific climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) of these areas. It is known from single sites in Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, and despite being a widespread species it is considered rare. The cloud forests associated with the Neotropical region are expected rapid declines in the next 40 years (Lutz et al. 2013, Ponce-Reyes et al. 2013, Helmer et al. 2019). Additionally, intentional burning, hunting, and intensified agriculture are current threats to this species, also impacting its habitat quality requirements. Based its restricted distribution to cloud forest areas and the critical reduction of these environments predicted in the Neotropical region, which are predicted translate in a reduction of population size and habitat quality for the species, a precautionary reduction of at least 50% in the next 40 years (reflecting three generations of the species) is suspected. The species is consequently assessed as Endangered under criterion A3c.

Geographic range

Lamelloporus americanus is expected to be restricted to cloud forests throughout the Central America region and western South America, and thus associated only with high altitude environments, above 1,000 m asl (Ryvarden 1987, Mata et al. 2007, Romero-Bautista et al. 2010, Guzmán and Piepenbring 2011, Salvador-Montoya et al. 2012, Vandegrift et al. 2023). It is known from single sites in the countries of Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru, and is apparently very rare within its distribution area. The species does not occur in all cloud forest areas within the Neotropical region, as despite the large sampling efforts in southern Brazilian cloud forests since 2011, no specimens have been found. Therefore, it is expected that the species requires specific conditions associated with Central America and western South America high altitude areas. It is expected that the species could also occur in other countries with cloud forests not yet recorded in Central America.

Population and Trends

Lamelloporus americanus is a conspicuous and rare species occurring on dead trunks, with only seven records in cloud forests within Central America and western South America. The species is believed to be restricted to high altitude areas (above 1,000 m asl) within its occurrence range (from Peru to Mexico, but could also occur in cloud forests of Central America countries where the species has not been recorded so far), as several expeditions with significant sampling effort have been carried in other cloud forest areas in the Neotropical region, such as in southern Brazil, and the species was never found.

The cloud forests associated with the Neotropical region are predicted to face a decline of 57% to 86% in the next 37 years, due to a reduction in cloud immersion, which is an essential condition for the existence of these formations (Helmer et al. 2019). Additionally, cloud forest areas from some countries where the species occurs are predicted to reduce by up to 96% (Lutz et al. 2013, Ponce-Reyes et al. 2013). Translating such predictions into potential population trends in this species are difficult, but a precautionary approach is taken here. Based on the restricted distribution of L. americanus to cloud forest areas and the critical reduction of these environments predicted for the Neotropical region, which is suspected translate to a decrease in population size and habitat quality for the species, a reduction of at least 50% in the next 40 years (reflecting three generations of the species) is precautionarily suspected.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Lamelloporus americanus is a saprophytic species that grows on dead trunks (Ryvarden 1987, Mata et al. 2007, Romero-Bautista et al. 2010, Guzmán and Piepenbring 2011, Salvador-Montoya et al. 2012, Vandegrift et al. 2023). The label of the type material mentions that it was found on the wood of Ulmus sp., and it does not specify whether the host was alive or decomposing. A three generation time period of 40 years is defined based on the substrate durability in which the species is found. With respect to habitat type, vegetation type, and altitude, Salvador-Montoya et al. (2012) infer that the species exhibits a distribution restricted to cloud forests in the Neotropics. Given the existing records of L. americanus, it presents a preference or adaptability to the climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) of these areas.

Threats

The threats that affect the population of Lamelloporus americanus and its habitat are climatic and anthropogenic effects, which have been varying over time (Young and León 2007, Valencia et al. 2010). For example, intentional burning for the promotion of grasslands for grazing, hunting and intensified agriculture has reduced the forest line of mountain forests compared to when no anthropogenic disturbance existed (Lægaard and Balslev 1992, Sarmeinto 1995, Sarmiento and Frolich 2002, Young and León 2007, Valencia et al. 2010). Despite these threats, currently, the main threat to L. americanus subpopulations, which will impact all subpopulations simultaneously, is from climate change. Regarding the cloud forests of the countries where L. americanus has been recorded, Peru's cloud forests display the highest predicted loss of area, which could be reduced by up to 96% in the face of the drastic advance of climate change in the 21st century (Lutz et al. 2013). Also, Ponce-Reyes et al. (2013) analysed the decline of cloud forests in Mexico over the next 60 years, and estimated that the cover of these forests could be reduced by 20%. These estimates are somewhat in line with predictions for all cloud forest areas in the Neotropical region, in which a reduction in cloud immersion, a vital characteristic for cloud forest maintenance, of 57-86% will happen between 2041 and 2060, depending on the greenhouse gas emissions scenario (Helmer et al. 2019).

Conservation Actions

In addition to promoting the dissemination of the urgent need for cloud forest protection and climate change awareness in the media or social networks, it is seen that it is necessary to carry out in vitro cultures (ex situ conservation) of this taxon in order to preserve its genetic diversity. It is also important to recognize cloud forest areas as fragile and unique ecosystems and promote in situ conservation of these areas. More clarification is needed regarding the species distribution in cloud forest areas in countries within its occurrence range (including those countries without records, but the potential for it), as well as its exact habitat requirements.

Use and Trade

There are no known uses for this species.

Source and Citation

Læssøe, T., Newman, D. & Salvador Montoya, C.A. 2023. Lamelloporus americanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2023: e.T76256213A245801795. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2023-1.RLTS.T76256213A245801795.en .Accessed on 2 January 2024

Country occurrence