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Lentinus concavus (Berk.) Corner

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Scientific name
Lentinus concavus
Author
(Berk.) Corner
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Polyporaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A3c
Proposed by
Nelson Menolli Jr
Assessors
Nelson Menolli Jr, Genivaldo Alves-Silva
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha

Assessment Notes

Justification

Lentinus concavus is an edible species known from around 40 sites being well distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the Central America in the Caribbean, and within South America in the Amazon and the Brazilian South and Southern Atlantic Forest. The species is consumed, harvested, and commercialized by indigenous and original populations, being its use considered safe if well cooked. It is common throughout its wide range, producing conspicuous and several basidiomata that grow caespitose in clusters on a wide variety of dead wood logs. Although there is a continuous and high sampling effort in Atlantic Forest areas within Northeastern Brazil, the species was never collected in this region. A reduction of area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest of around 8% is expected to be met in 30 years. In the Amazon, the L. concavus population is mainly threatened by impacts of climate change, where a reduction of around 14.7% is expected to be met in the same time frame. In Central America and the Caribbean regions, it is expected a total reduction of 13% in three generations (30 years). For these regions, considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation in small patches, these percentages will probably reflect also in habitat quality loss, which can be projected in a loss of around 19% of suitable habitat. Based on the habitat area and quality losses within the next 30 years (three generations), L. concavus is considered Near Threatened under A3c.


Taxonomic notes

Lentinus concavus (Berk.) Corner, Beih. Nova Hedwigia 69: 30 (1981)

Synomyms
Panus concavus Berk., Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., Ser. 2 9: 194 (1852)
Agaricus putredinus Berk. & M.A. Curtis, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 10(no. 45): 287 (1869)
Pleurotus putredinus (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 5: 354 (1887)
Pocillaria concava (Berk.) Kuntze, Revis. gen. pl. (Leipzig) 3(3): 506 (1898)
Lentodiellum concavum (Berk.) Murrill, Tropical Polypores 7(4): 216 (1915)
Pleurotus concavus (Berk.) Singer, Sydowia 9(1-6): 378 (1955)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Lentinus concavus is an wild edible species recorded to the Neotropica


Geographic range

Lentinus concavus was described by Berkeley (1852) as Panus concavus based on a material from the Dominican Republic, in Santo Domingo (Pegler 1983). Based on additional bibliographical records, L. concavus is recorded to Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (Pegler 1983, Minter et al. 2001, Franco-Molano et al. 2005, Vasco-Palacios et al. 2005, Gates et al. 2021, Angelini 2022, Rengifo et al. 2022). In Brazil, L. concavus is recorded for the states of Acre, Mato Grosso do Sul, Roraima, Rio Grande do Sul, and São Paulo (Bononi, 1992, Bononi et al. 2008, Fidalgo & Prance 1976, Sanuma et al. 2016, Timm 2018, 2021). Curated data from GBIF (2024) confirm and expand the distribution of L. concavus to Bolivia, Brazil (in the states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras, French Guiana, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Considering the geographic distribution in the Neotropical region and the available pictures, the records to Indonesia (Lestari et al. 2018) and Mexico (GBIF 2024, gbifID 3113332306) are doubtful and therefore were not considered in the distribution of the species.


Population and Trends

Lentinus concavus is a species with medium to high detectability, growing abundantly, caespitose, with numerous basidiomata in clusters on a wide variety of dead wood logs. The species is known from 85 collections in ca. 40 sites, being well distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the Central America in the Caribbean, and within South America in the Amazon and the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although there is a continuous and high sampling effort in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest areas within Northeastern Brazil, the species was never collected in this region, and thus it is believed that its distribution does not reach high latitudes in this biome. The species is expected to occur in other 2500–3000 sites with 30 individuals per site. The population size is estimated between 75000-90000 mature individuals. The species habitat is threatened mainly by historical and continuing urbanization in the Atlantic Forest (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018) and climate change impacts in the Amazon (Zhang et al. 2015). In Central America and the Caribbean where the species has been reported, the main threats are similar to others in Tropical areas such as anthropogenic disturbes and urbanization (Portillo-Quintero & Smith 2018). Considering those threats, it is projected that the species will suffer a reduction of ca. 19% in the next 30 years (three generations). Population decline was projected in light of extension loss of suitable habitat (Silva et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2015; Global Forest Watch 2024) and the putative negative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Lentinus concavus is a saprotrophic species that grows on dead wood logs without known host specificity. The species has medium to high detectability, growing abundantly, caespitose, with around four clusters per log of 5-15 basidiomata. In Brazil the species occurs in well preserved areas within the Amazon and South and Southeastern Atlantic Forest. In the Caribbean and Central America regions the species also occurs in conserved humid tropical forest areas.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

The Amazon Forest is essential for maintaining the global climate system (Swann et al. 2015). The changes in the land use and the expansion of the cattle and soy industries in the Amazon have increased deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Other threats are also constant such as fire, illegal gold mining, logging and lack of inspection and punishment by the Brazilian government (Condé et al. 2019). A number of modeling studies predict that about 50% of the Amazon basin will be replaced by savanna and arid land vegetation by the end of the 21st century (Zhang et al. 2015). As well as the Amazon Forest, the Atlantic Forest is also threatened. The Atlantic Forest has been suffering threats and loss of area over time. As a result of the long history of disturbance, most of the remaining Atlantic Forest is immersed in human-modified landscapes, with many small, edge-affected forest remnants (Joly et al. 2014). According to Rezende et al. (2018), there is only 28% of native vegetation cover for the Atlantic Forest biome, including both forest (26%) and non-forest native formations (2%). Habitat loss and fragmentation, logging, fire, hunting, and climate change have caused an alarming loss of biodiversity in the biome. The expansion of urban areas is also an important pressure further reducing the area of the Atlantic Forest (Joly et al. 2014). In Central America and the Caribbean regions where the species has been reported, the main threats are similar to those in South America, which reflect the overall threats to Tropical forests (Portillo-Quintero & Smith 2018). Considering the annual area loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest from 1985-2018 of 0.25% (Silva et al., 2020) and a continuing decline, a reduction of around 8% is expected to be met in 30 years. In the Amazon, the L. concavus population is mainly threatened by impacts of climate change, where a reduction of around 14% is expected to be met in the same time frame (Zhang et al., 2015). In Central America and the Caribbean regions where the species has been reported, from 2001-2022, an annual reduction of 0.61% has taken place, and considering a continuous declining, it is expected a total reduction of 13% in three generations (30 years) (Global Forest Watch 2024). For these areas, considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation in small patches, these percentages will probably reflect also in habitat quality loss (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015), which can be projected in a loss of around 19% of suitable habitat.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingMining & quarryingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

The main conservation action to benefit the species population is the protection of its habitat. In Brazil, most specimens were collected in conserved areas, thus large fragments should be a priority to conserve the species as it guarantees habitat quality as well as the creation of new areas. Lentinus concavus is an edible species and the collecting and sustainable use of the species is important. As the outcomes of climate change are among the main threats to the species population and its habitat, ex-situ conservation based on in-vitro cultures to protect the species genetic diversity is necessary.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionHarvest managementGenome resource bankInternational levelNational level

Research needed

New samplings are needed to better understand the distribution of the species, as well as in other countries where the species probably occurs, but which has not been reported yet, such as Northeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The cultivation potential and medicinal properties of the species also need to be further studied. The large scale harvest to commercial purposes of the species needs to be better understood regarding negative impacts in its population stability.

Population size, distribution & trendsHarvest, use & livelihoodsHarvest level trendsTrade trends

Use and Trade

The mushrooms of L. concavus are edible and has been reported to be used by traditional communities in Brazil (Fidalgo & Prance 1976, Sanuma et al., 2016), Colombia (Vasco-Palacios et al. 2008, González-Cuellar et al. 2021), and Ecuador (Perez 2020). Lentinus concavus is consumed by the Yanomami indigenous people in the Amazon Forest in Brazil. They consume the mushroom roasted in leaves. The species needs to be well cooked before consumption, as it can cause nausea and dizziness. Lentinus concavus is traded by the Sanöma, part of the Yanomami people who inhabit the Awaris region, in the mountain forests of the extreme northwest of Roraima, Brazil. The Sanöma Mushroom mix that is sold by the Yanomami people may contain more than 10 mushroom species and is a product of the Yanomami agricultural system.

Food - human

Bibliography

Angelini, C. (2022). Macrofungi of the Dominican Republic: a first checklist and introduction to http://www.neotropicalfungi.com. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology 12: 238–258.

Berglund, H., & Jonsson, B. G. (2003). Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological conservation, 112(3), 319-328.


Gates, G., Goyes, P., Gundogdu, F., Cruz, J., & Ratkowsky, D. (2021). Small plot surveying reveals high fungal diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon-a case study. Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology 11: 16–36.

GBIF Occurrence Download (2024). GBIF.org. Accessed on 25 January, 2024.


Global Forest Watch. (2024). https://gfw.global/42brXK2. Accessed on 25 January, 2024.

Haddad, N. M., Brudvig, L. A., Clobert, J., Davies, K. F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R. D., ... & Townshend, J. R. (2015). Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science advances, 1(2), e1500052.

Franco-Molano AE, Vasco-Palacios AM, López-Quintero C, Boekhout T. 2005. Macrohongos de la región del Medio Caquetá. Guía de campo. Multimpresos. Medellin.

Lestari, A. S., Zulfiana, D., Zulfitri, A., Krishanti, N. P. R. A., & Kartika, T. (2018). Phylogenetic Analysis of Polyporous Fungi Collected from Batam Botanical Garden, Riau Province, Indonesia. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 10(3), 510-518.

Minter, D. W., Rodríguez-Hernández, M., & Mena-Portales, J. (2001). Fungi of the Caribbean. An annotated checklist. Isleworth, UK: PDMS Publs, 943.

Pérez, V., & Stefania, K. (2020). Macrohongos silvestres comestibles utilizados por dos comunidades kichwa del Napo, Amazonía Ecuatoriana (Doctoral dissertation). In: https://repositorio.ikiam.edu.ec/xmlui/handle/RD_IKIAM/548.

Portillo-Quintero, C., & Smith, V. (2018). Emerging trends of tropical dry forests loss in North & Central America during 2001–2013: The role of contextual and underlying drivers. Applied Geography, 94, 58-70.


Rengifo, L. R., Tello, M. R., Poma, V. P., Levi, D. Z. C., & Tello, A. R. Cinética de creciemiento y caracterización morfológica del micelio de onde hongos silvestres comestibles. In 1er CONGRESO COLOMBIANO DE MICOLOGÍA (p. 324).

Vasco-Palacios AM, Franco-Molano AE, López-Quintero C, Boekhout T. 2005. Macromicetes (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) de la región del Medio Caquetá, departamentos de Caquetá y Amazonas (Colombia). Biota Colombiana 6: 127-159.

Rezende, C. L., Scarano, F. R., Assad, E. D., Joly, C. A., Metzger, J. P., Strassburg, B. B. N., … Mittermeier, R. A. (2018). From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. doi:10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.00

Silva, R. F. B., Millington, J. D., Moran, E. F., Batistella, M., & Liu, J. (2020). Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landscape and Urban Planning, 204, 103948.

Tabarelli, M., Aguiar, A. V., Ribeiro, M. C., Metzger, J. P., and Peres, C. A. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143(10): 2328-2340.

Zhang, K., de Almeida Castanho, A. D., Galbraith, D. R., Moghim, S., Levine, N. M., Bras, R. L., ... & Moorcroft, P. R. (2015). The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO 2, and land use. Global change biology, 21(7), 2569-2587.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted