• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Geastrum echinulatum T.S. Cabral, B.D.B. Silva & Baseia

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Scientific name
Geastrum echinulatum
T.S. Cabral, B.D.B. Silva & Baseia
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Comments etc.
Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Unexpanded basidiomes subglobose to oval, 16–17 mm tall × 11–13 mm diam., in wood, growing on a white subiculum, attached to the substrate by several white rhizomorphs up 1 mm thick, surface covered with hyphal tuft gregarious, light brown violet (6D5) to dark brown (6F5). Expanded basidiomes 18–22 mm wide × 14– 29 mm tall. ExopEridium splitting into 5 rays, saccate, nonhygroscopic. Mycelial layer light brown (6D4, 6E5), persistent, forming hyphal tuft separate in the base, becoming gregarious at the tips of the rays, not encrusted with sand. Fibrous layer yellowish white (4A2), papery. Pseudoparenchymatous layer brownish red (8D3) when fresh, becoming dark brown (7F4), rigid, persistent. EndopEridial body 10–11 mm wide × 8–10 mm tall (including peristome), sessile, subglobose, glabrous, brownish gray (6D3). Apophysis absent. pEristomE fibrillose, not delimited, concolorous with endoperidium, applanate. Columella white to yellow, rounded to columnar in section. glEba dark brown (7D4).basidiosporEs globose, 3.8–5 µm, coarsely verrucose under MO, under SEM the ornamentation is ± columnar, with rounded ends to almost flat, brown in 5% KOH. Eucapillitium 2.5-4.4 µm diam., slightly rough, encrusted with amorphous substance, hyphal thin walls (up 1.3 µm), without pores, without septa, yellowish in 5% KOH. Mycelial layer composed of sinuous-walled hyphae, 3.8-8.9 µm diam., hyaline to yellowish in 5% KOH. Fibrous layer composed of straight and thin walled hyphae, 2.4-3.8 µm diam., hyaline to yellowish in 5% KOH.  Pseudoparenchymatous layer composed of subglobose to elliptic hyphae, 19-36.8 µm diam. × 26.7-53.3 µm in length, hyaline to yellowish in 5% KOH.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

The species is known from South and Central, but with few records. We, thus, suggest this species to be categorized as Near Threatened (NT).

Geographic range

Population and Trends

Only known from 3 collection, from Brazil (2) and Costa Rica (according to literature).

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

In wood, growing on a white subiculum. Reported from the Neotropics. In Brazil, the species is found in Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical High Altitude Shrubland


The species is found in the Atlantic Forest, a hotspot, in the Amazonia (currently being deforested at the highest rates in the last decades).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasAgro-industry farmingAgro-industry plantationsMining & quarryingRoads & railroads

Conservation Actions

Reports in Brazil are from protected area.

Site/area protection

Research needed

More collections.

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade




Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted