• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Castellanea pakaraimophila T.W. Henkel & M.E. Sm.

Search for another Species...

Scientific name
Castellanea pakaraimophila
T.W. Henkel & M.E. Sm.
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro

Assessment Notes


C. pakaraimophila is an ectomychorrizal species known from only one location in South America. Without targeted search efforts and research into host and habitat preference it is not possible to determine whether this species may be threatened so it is assessed as Data Deficient (DD).

Taxonomic notes

C. pakaraimophila is the type and so far only species in the Castellanea genus, established in 2015 based on the morphological and molecular data (Smith et al., 2015).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

Recorded in one single location in the Upper Mazaruni River Basin of Guyana, in South America. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, so far its only known host, is only found in Guyana and Venezuela (POWO, 2023) which may limit the distribution of C. pakaraimophila.

Population and Trends

C. pakaraimophila is so far only known from 1 location in Guyana. The number of records for this species is likely limited by its inconspicuous and hypogeous fruitbodies, but further research is needed to estimate population size.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

C. pakaraimophila is a hypogeous to partially emergent and ectomycorrhizal species. Its only known host is the shrub Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea, confirmed based on a DNA analysis of the ectomycorrhizal roots. Found solitary or in small groups in a closed canopy tropical wet rainforest, dominated by ectomycorrhizal trees. (Smith et al., 2015).

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest


Without further records and research into habitat preferences it is difficult to evaluate threats.
The only known host, P. dipterocarpacea, has not yet been evaluated by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species but its native range is limited to Venezuela and Guyana (POWO, 2023). If confirmed as the only host, this could limit the distribution of C. pakaraimophila.

Conservation Actions

Research needed

Targeted search efforts and research into host and habitat preferences are needed to establish distribution, population size and potential threats.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyThreats

Use and Trade


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted