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Capronia capucina R.M. Sánchez, A.N. Mill. & Bianchin.

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Scientific name
Capronia capucina
Author
R.M. Sánchez, A.N. Mill. & Bianchin.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Ascomycota
Class
Eurotiomycetes
Order
Chaetothyriales
Family
Herpotrichiellaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2022-12-16
IUCN Red List Category
DD
Assessors
Sánchez, R.
Reviewers
Drechsler-Santos, E., Martins da Cunha, K. & Minter, D.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/238219528/246019248

Justification

Capronia capucina is known from only two sites of the Andean Patagonian forest of Argentina, associated with bark of living Nothofagaceae trees. It is saprophytic on the bark of Nothofagus alpina and N. antarctica. These plants are restricted to the Argentinean and Chilean Patagonian forests, in areas with a temperate to cold climate with high humidity, strong westerly winds and frequent snowfall. It is suspected that the fungus may occur along the distribution of these known hosts plants, over 700m asl, and probably in the more humid areas. However, further surveys are required to ascertain whether this is the case or not.

There are many threats to the habitat of the associated plants, such as fires (the principal threat), the use of the forest land for housing installations, livestock, extraction of wood and soil, recreation activities and tourism; and these are causing a decline in the forest area. An additional and growing threat to this habitat is climate change, which is of particular concern as Nothofagaceae trees exhibit poor dispersal ability and may not be able to adapt in response to a warming climate. Despite extensive surveys elsewhere in the Andean Patagonia forest, additional records for the species have not been made so far, making estimation of population size and trend difficult. It is not possible to accurately estimate the extinction risk of this species, and so C. capucina is assessed as Data Deficient.

Geographic range

Capronia capucina has a restricted distribution with only two localities known so far from the Andean Patagonian forest of Argentina, more precisely two nature reserves: Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi and Parque Nacional Lanín. The known hosts plant species occur in Argentina and Chile; Nothofagus alpina is more frequent in Chile from 34.4° to 44° south but in Argentina is only present approximately between 39º and 41º south, in an altitude range around 200 to 1,200 m asl.; and Nothofagus antarctica is distributed along the Andean forest from 36° south to the region of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) and Magallanes (Chile).

Population and Trends

Capronia capucina is known from two different sites of the Andean Patagonian forest of Argentina, so far recorded to be associated with bark of living Nothofagus alpina and N. antarctica. These plants occur in the Argentinean and Chilean Patagonian forests, in areas with a temperate to cold climate with high humidity, strong westerly winds and frequent snowfall. Of the two site where this fungal species has been found, in one of them (40°37′5.41″S, 71°38′48.79″W, 892m asl.), Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, it was found in association with three different N. antarctica trees; and in the other site (40°8′25.29″S, 71°40′3.84″W, 757m asl.), it was associated with one N. alpina tree. It is possible that the fungus occurs along the distribution of N. alpina and N. antarctica, over 700m asl., and also in more humid areas, but further survey work is required to ascertain this.

Due to its very small size this species may be easily overlooked but, based on extensive surveys (20 different sites visited in three national parks) from the middle to northern part of the forest, the collections seem to indicate that it has a restricted distribution, but further work is needed to confirm this; although the fungus likely occurs in the Nothofagaceae of Chile. Extensive surveys elsewhere in the Andean Patagonia forest have failed to find this species, and there is no clear information with which to calculate its population size and trend. Thus, these are essentially unknown.

Population Trend: unknown


Habitat and Ecology

Capronia capucina is a saprotroph species that has been found growing on bark of living Nothofagus alpina and N. antarctica (Nothofagaceae), trees from the Andean Patagonian forest of Argentina and Chile. The Nothofagaceae-dominated forests where the species occurs are also populated by Austrocedrus chilensis, but the fungal species was not found growing associated with the bark of A. chilensis individuals. The area where the fungus occurs is characterised by deciduous forests in a temperate to cold climate with strong westerly winds, frequent snowfall and high annual rainfalls.

Threats

The threats to the habitat where the fungus is found are; the use of the forest land for housing installations or for cattle raising (the latter decreases the survival of the seedlings), extraction of wood/firewood or soil, invasion of exotic species, increases in forest use for recreation and tourism, more susceptibility to pathogen attack because of alterations in the water dynamics due to climate change, and increasing fires, predominantly in areas close to population centres (e.g. Carabelli and Antequera 2003, Veblen et al. 2008, Rodríguez-Cantón et al. 2016, Amoroso et al. 2017). Also a growing threat to this habitat is climate change, which is of particular concern as Nothofagaceae trees exhibit poor dispersal ability and may not be able to adapt in response to a warming climate (Baldwin et al. 2018).

Conservation Actions

The main action to prevent the decline of the species is the protection of its habitat, and more specifically of the Nothofagaceae species with which Capronia capucina is associated. On the one hand it is important to implement the law established in 2007 for regulating the use of forest land for housing and to ensure that it is being followed. Also, opportunities abound to combine ambitious goals of forest restoration and regeneration with sustainable rural livelihoods and community participation. Although it will not match the composition and structure of the original forest cover, new forests are being regenerated on former agricultural land, and forest plantations are being established for commercial and restoration purposes worldwide (Chazdon 2008). 

Further research is also needed to expand our knowledge about the distribution of C. capucina, for instance to ascertain whether it is present or not in the Chilean Andean Nothofagaceae forests and also if it occurs below 43° south in the Argentinean Andean forest. Also, it is important to better understand the threats it may face and how they are impacting the population.

Use and Trade

No use/trade is known.

Source and Citation

Sánchez, R. 2023. Capronia capucina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2023: e.T238219528A246019248. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2023-1.RLTS.T238219528A246019248.en .Accessed on 3 January 2024

Country occurrence