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Clavulina ossea Meiras-Ottoni & Gibertoni

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Scientific name
Clavulina ossea
Author
Meiras-Ottoni & Gibertoni
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Cantharellales
Family
Hydnaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT A2c
Proposed by
Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges
Assessors
Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges, Lara Ferst, Angelina de Meiras-Ottoni, Nelson Menolli Jr, Maria Alice Neves, Denis Zabin, Thiago Kossmann
Reviewers
Gregory Mueller, E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha

Assessment Notes

Justification

Clavulina ossea is a possibly ectomycorrhizal species growing solitary to scattered in small clusters on the floor, but is not commonly collected due to the dull colors of the basidiomes and the scarcity of specialists in coralloid fungi in Brazil. This species is known only from four sites in Brazil distributed in the Atlantic Forest, the transition between the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, and ‘brejos de altitude’ (submontane forest in the Caatinga). It is estimated Clavulina ossea is distributed along the Atlantic Forest from south to northeast Brazil, and is also expected to occur in less abundance throughout ‘brejos de altitude’ patches within the Caatinga. The Atlantic Forest is home to the largest urban centers in Brazil and showed a habitat decline of more than 72% by the year 2020. The fragmentation and high loss of habitat in the Atlantic Forest are due to urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural expansion. Taking into consideration the distribution of Clavulina ossea it was estimated 52,500 total mature individuals. Based on the severe habitat loss of area and habitat quality we suspect a population decline of around 26% within the last three generations (50 years). It is assessed as Near Threatened (A2c).


Taxonomic notes

Clavulina ossea Meiras-Ottoni & Gibertoni, in Tibpromma et al., Fungal Diversity 83: 205 (2017).


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Clavulina ossea is a possibly ectomycorrhizal species with large and grayish-brown or brown basidiomes. Clavulina ossea is expected to be distributed across the Atlantic Forest of southern and northeastern Brazil. The Atlantic Forest is home to the largest urban centers in Brazil and showed a habitat decline of more than 72% by the year 2020. Also, this species is distributed in a submontane forest in the Caatinga (Paraíba), known as ‘brejos de altitude’, and the transition between the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga (Alagoas). The distribution along the ‘brejos de altitude’ is poorly understood due to lack of collections in these areas, and mainly the difficulty of understanding and mapping the distribution of this environment. Considering the species fragile habitat, it is of importance to assess its conservation status.


Geographic range

This species is known from only four sites in Brazil: one in Paraíba state (Areia, Mata do Pau-Ferro State Park), one in Alagoas state (Quebrangulo, Pedra Talhada Biological Reserve), and two in Santa Catarina state (Florianópolis, Mirante do Morro da Lagoa trail and Morro do Rapa trail), but it is likely to be found throughout the coastal Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The species is also expected to occur in less abundance throughout ‘brejos de altitude’ patches within the Caatinga, which are naturally fragmented formations resembling the Atlantic Forest physiognomy and plant species assemblage, restricted to higher altitude. Clavulina ossea can also be found in transition areas between the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest.


Population and Trends

This species is found growing solitary to scattered in small clusters of grayish-brown to brown basidiomes, with a medium detectability. There are seven known collections of the species, three from Santa Catarina state (Ferst, 2021), one from Paraíba state (Tibpromma et al., 2017), and three from Alagoas state (Meiras-Ottoni and Gibertoni, 2023). There are few records of the species even in frequently surveyed sites throughout the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. However Clavulina ossea is likely not commonly collected due to the dull colors of the basidiomes and the scarcity of specialists in coralloid fungi in Brazil.

Considering the species distribution, there are up to an additional 1,000 potential sites, each holding around 52 mature individuals, with 52,500 total estimated mature individuals. The Atlantic Forest, where Clavulina ossea occurs more abundantly, holds the largest urban centers in Brazil, housing more than 70% of the Brazilian population. Thus, urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural expansion have led to high loss and fragmentation of this biome.  There has been a habitat decline of the Atlantic Forest of over 72% by the year 2020 (Rezende et al. 2018). Thus, we precautionarily inferred a population decline of at least 26% within the last three generations of this species (50 years) (Rezende et al., 2018; da Silva et al. 2020), inferred in light of the extensive loss of suitable habitat (da Silva et al. 2020) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund and Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015). The distribution along the ‘brejos de altitude’ is poorly understood due lack of collections in these areas, and mainly the difficulty of understanding and mapping the distribution of this environment. The ‘brejos de altitude’ are naturally fragmented and isolated patches of humid forest in the middle of a semi-arid region, surrounded by caatinga vegetation. It is estimated that it covers an area of about 2626.68 km2 (data from 1993) (Tabarelli and Santos 2004), with 65 ‘brejos de altitude’ patches along the northeastern region of Brazil (Ramos, Souza and Lucena 2020). Due to conflicting data on the ‘brejos de altitude’ and since they are fragmented regions with similar climates and vegetation to the Atlantic Forest, it is believed that the majority of the Clavulina ossea population is distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This is a possibly ectomycorrhizal species growing solitary to scattered on the floor of the Atlantic Forest, the transition between the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga, and ‘brejos de altitude’ (submontane forest in the Caatinga) in Brazil. The delimitation of ‘brejos de altitude’ is divergent between authors, which makes it difficult to estimate how many ‘brejos’ there are and their conservation status, as there is no recent data on this specific environment found in the Caatinga. Ramos, Souza and Lucena (2020) estimated 65 ‘brejos de altitude’ in the Brazilian northeastern region, even though it is based only on altitude data, and cited these environments cover an area of about 2626.68 km2 (data from 1993).

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

There is concern over a decline of the habitat considering the Atlantic Forest, as the biome is currently reduced to small highly fragmented patches open to recreational activities and tourism and there are no strict laws that restrict the use (Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica, 2021). Also, the Atlantic Forest holds the largest urban centers in Brazil, housing more than 70% of the Brazilian population, and the high loss and fragmentation are due the urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural expansion. The areas in southern Brazil have been historically impacted by urban growth. There has been a habitat decline of the Atlantic Forest of over 72% by the year 2020 (Rezende et al. 2018).
In Paraíba state, in northeastern Brazil, the species was first described from ‘brejos de altitude’, which are regions of moist forest (with high rainfall) surrounded by semi-arid vegetation (Porto, Cabral and Tabarelli, 2004). These environments suffers from heavy deforestation, and fragmentation due to wood and firewood extraction (Porto, Cabral and Tabarelli 2004), cattle breeding, and agriculture (Tabarelli and Santos 2004). We cannot disregard the impact of climate change in these environments, such as aggravated droughts in the semiarid region of Brazil.

The site located in Alagoas state is a biological reserve that is a transition between the Atlantic Forest and the Caatinga. As it is a biological reserve, some residents and squatters use the reserve area to plant subsistence crops. This site is also under great pressure from invaders for the illegal removal of tree species with economic value (Almeida et al., 2006).

The two sites in Santa Catarina state are open areas for recreational activities and tourism, in addition to being constantly threatened by residential construction. The portion of Morro do Rapa trail where the species was sampled corresponds to restinga remnants. Threats to the last remnants of restinga in the coastal Atlantic Forest include urbanization and the invasion of the areas by exotic pine trees (Pinus elliottii).

Housing & urban areasUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesNamed speciesDroughts

Conservation Actions

Required conservation actions include increased site protection, management (to contain clearing, hunting activities, and wood extraction), and maintenance of the protected areas where the species is found, along with developing conservation plans. Also, forest restoration should be considered where the remnants are smaller than 1000 ha.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementHabitat & natural process restorationNational levelSub-national level

Research needed

More surveys and below-ground studies are necessary to identify its plant symbionts and to better understand C. ossea distribution patterns and habitat requirements. Considering that some of the sites where the species was found [such as ‘brejos de altitude’ (Paraíba) and the transition between Atlantic Forest and Caatinga (Alagoas)] are fragile and poorly understood environments, more collections in these areas are necessary. Therefore, more studies and sampling in these and adjacent sites.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyPopulation trends

Use and Trade

None known.


Bibliography

Almeida, H.; Pereira, C. F.; Seixas, J. A. B.; and Cunha, A. M. C. 2006. Plano operativo de prevenção e combate aos incêndios florestais da Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada. Available at: http://www.ibama.gov.br/phocadownload/prevfogo/planos_operativos/plano_operativo_reserva_biolgica_de_pedra_talhada.pdf (Accessed: 14 Out 2021)

Berglund, H. and Jonsson, B. G. 2003. Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological Conservation 112 (3): 319-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00329-4

Dahlberg, A. and Mueller, G. 2011. Applying IUCN red-listing criteria for assessing and reporting on the conservation status of fungal species. Fungal Ecology 4: 1-16.

Ferst, L. M. 2021. Taxonomia de Clavulina J. Schröt. (Clavulinaceae, Cantharellales) na Mata Atlântica catarinense. 2021. TCC (Graduação) - Curso de Ciências Biológicas, Botânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis.

Fundação SOS Mata Atlântica. 2021. Mata Atlântica. Available at: https://www.sosma.org.br/causas/mata-atlantica/ (Accessed: 17 Set 2021).

Haddad, N. M.; Brudvig, L. A.; Clobert, G.; Davies, K. F.; Gonzales, A.; Holt, R. D.; Lovejoy, T. E.; Sexton, J. O.; Austin, M. P.; Collins, C. D.; Cook, W. M.; Damschen, E. I.; Ewers, R. M.; Foster, B. L.; Jenkins, C. N.; King, A. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Levey, D. J.; Margules, C. R.; Melbourne, B. A.; Nicholls, A. O.; Orrock, J. L.; Song, D. X.; and Townshend, J. R. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science Advances 1 (2). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500052

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-2. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 17 September 2021).

Meiras-Ottoni, A. and Gibertoni, T. B. 2023. Clavarioid fungi from Brazil: novelties in Clavulina (Cantharellales). Mycological Progress 22, 25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-023-01873-w

Porto, K. C.; Cabral, J. J. P. and Tabarelli, M. 2004. Brejos de Altitude em Pernambuco e Paraíba - História natural, ecologia e conservação. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. 324 p.

Ramos, R. P. S.; Souza, B. I. and Lucena, D. B. 2020. Application of the hierarchical process analysis technique to the development of methodology for mapping the distribution of altitudinal rain forests in the Brazilian semiarid. Geografia Ensino & Pesquisa 24 (46). DOI: 10.5902/2236499447918

Rezende, C. L.; Scarano, F. R.; Assad, E. D.; Joly, C. A.; Metzger, J. P.; Strassburg, B. B. N.; Tabarelli, M.; Fonseca, G. A.; and Mittermeier, R. A. 2018. From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation 16 (4): 208-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.002

Ribeiro, P. Y. and Melo Jnr. J.C.F. 2016. Richness and community structure of sand dunes (restinga) in Santa Catarina: subsidies for ecological restoration. Acta Biologica Catarinense 3(1): 25-35.

da Silva, R. F. B.; Millington, J. D. A.; Moran, E. F.; Batistella, M.; and Liu, J. 2020. Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landscape and Urban Planning 204: 103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103948

Tabarelli, M. and Santos, A. M. M. 2004. Uma breve descrição sobre a história Natural dos Brejos Nordestinos. In: Porto, K. C.; Cabral, J. J. P. and Tabarelli, M. (eds.). Brejos de Altitude em Pernambuco e Paraíba - História natural, ecologia e conservação, pp. 17-24. Ministério do Meio Ambiente, Brasília, Brazil.

Tibpromma, S.; Hyde, K. D.; Jeewon, R.; Maharachchikumbura, S. S. N.; Liu, J. K.; Bhat, D. J.; Jones, E. B. G.; McKenzie, E. H. C.; Camporesi, E.; Bulgakov, T. S.; Doilom, M.; Santiago, A. L. C. M. A.; Das, K.; Manimohan, P.; Gibertoni, T. B.; Lim, Y. W.; Ekanayaka, A. H.; Thongbai, B.; Lee, H. B.; Yang, J. B.; Kirk, P. M.; Sysouphanthong, P.; Singh, S. K.; Boonmee, S.; Dong, W.; Raj, K. N. A.; Latha, K. P. D.; Phookamsak, R.; Phukhamsakda, C.; Konta, S.; Jayasiri, S. C.; Norphanphoun, C.; Tennakoon, D. S.; Li, J.; Dayarathne, M. C.; Perera, R. H.; Xiao, Y.; Wanasinghe, D. N.; Senanayake, I. C.; Goonasekara, I. D.; de Silva, N. I.,; Mapook, A.; Jayawardena, R. S.; Dissanayake, A. J.; Manawasinghe, I. S.; Chethana, K. W. T.; Luo, Z. L.; Hapuarachchi, K. K.; Baghela, A.; Soares, A. M.; Vizzini, A.; Meiras-Ottoni, A.; Mesˇic´, A.; Dutta, A. K.; de Souza, C. A. F.; Richter, C.; Lin, C. G.; Chakrabarty, D.; Daranagama, D. A.; Lima, D. X. 2017. Fungal diversity notes 491–602: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 83(1): 1-261.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted