• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Heteroradulum brasiliense (Bodman) Spirin & Malysheva

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Scientific name
Heteroradulum brasiliense
Author
(Bodman) Spirin & Malysheva
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Auriculariales
Family
Auriculariaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C1+2a(ii)
Proposed by
Thiago Kossmann
Assessors
Thiago Kossmann, Denis Zabin, Nelson Menolli Jr, Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

This is a very rare species, so far known only from Southern Brazil, from two sites and two collections. It is probably restricted to the colder areas in the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. Total population is estimated at 2,500 to 5,000 mature individuals, distributed in 500 sites in Southern Brazil, each with an average of up to 10 mature individuals, where each functional individual accounts for 2 mature individuals. An estimated population loss of 20-25% is estimated to occur in the next 20 years, in lower areas mainly due to habitat loss for urban and agricultural expansion, and in montane areas mainly due to deforestation, impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle), and impacts of climate change.


Taxonomic notes

≡Heterochaete brasiliensis Bodman, Lloydia 15(4): 210 (1953)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This is a very rare species, so far known only from Southern Brazil, and previously to this study, known only from the type specimens. It is probably restricted to the colder areas in the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil. Total population is estimated at 2,500 to 5,000 mature individuals, distributed in 500 sites in Southern Brazil, each with an average of up to 10 mature individuals, where each functional individual accounts for 2 mature individuals. An estimated population loss of 7.5-10% is estimated to occur in the next 20 years, in lower areas mainly due to habitat loss for urban and agricultural expansion, and in montane areas mainly due to deforestation, impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle), and impacts of climate change.


Geographic range

Heteroradulum brasiliense is known only from subtropical/temperate forests of Southern Brazil (Lowy 1971, Malysheva and Spirin 2017, Kossmann 2022). It is probably restricted to the subtropical/temperate Atlantic Forest formations (Araucaria Forests, Coasta Forests, Cloud Forests) in Southern Brazil.


Population and Trends

Heteroradulum brasiliense is a very rare species, known from only two records in Southern Brazil, despite the history of intensive sampling in its area of occurrence (Kossmann 2022). Total population is conservatively (accounting for the inconspicuity of the species) estimated at 2,500 to 5,000 mature individuals, distributed in up to 500 sites in Southern Brazil, each with an average of up to 10 mature individuals. An estimated population loss of 20-25% is estimated to occur in the next 20 years due to loss of appropriate habitat, in lower areas mainly due to habitat loss for urban and agricultural expansion, and in montane areas mainly due to deforestation, impacts of introduced species (mainly cattle), and impacts of climate change (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Pinto et al. 2006, Mulligan et al. 2011, Carlucci et al. 2016, Castro et al. 2020).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

The species is saprophytic on dead wood. It is found in the colder forests of Southern Brazil, including submontane, montane, and Cloud Forests in the Araucaria Forests and Coastal Atlantic Forests.

Temperate ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest

Threats

The species occurs in fragmented, historically affected forests that have lost 97% of its original cover in 100 years, a decline that remains ongoing today. An extensive amount of this loss took place in the last 50 years, due to land conversion for farming and plantations as well as logging activities. Ongoing threats include the loss of its habitat from the impacts of climate change, as well other anthropogenic factors, such as deforestation and introduction of invasive species (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Pinto et al. 2006, Mulligan et al. 2011, Carlucci et al. 2016, Castro et al. 2020).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingSmall-holder plantationsAgro-industry plantationsSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityUnspecified speciesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

Conservation of H. brasiliense involves the preservation of its habitat in conservation areas and the effective enforcement of conservation policies.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protection

Research needed

More surveys, aiming at finding the species are needed in its region of appropriate habitat to understand its population and distribution. Additionally, systematic studies with molecular phylogenetic data can help understand the evolutionary history and relationships of the species, but no sequences are available online, so far.

TaxonomyPopulation size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade


Bibliography

Brooks, T., Balmford, A. 1996. Atlantic forest extinctions, Nature 380: 115.

Carlucci. M.B., Luza, A.L., Hartz, S.M., Duarte, L.D.S. 2016. Forests, shrublands and grasslands in southern Brazil are neglected and have specific needs for their conservation. Reply to Overbeck et al., Natureza & Conservação 14(2): 155-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.08.001

Castro, M.B., Barbosa, A.C.M.C., Pompeu, P.V., Eisenlohr, P.V., Pereira, G.A., Apgaua, D.M.G., Pires-Oliveira, J.C., Barbosa, J.P.R.A.D., Fontes, M.A.L., Santos, R.M., Tng, D.Y.P. 2020. Will the emblematic southern conifer Araucaria angustifolia survive to climate change in Brazil?, Biodiversity Conservation 29: 591-607.

Kossmann, T. 2022. Diversity and Conservation of Macrofungi from the Aparados da Serra with an emphasis on forest ecosystems. Master’s Thesis, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.

Lowy, B. 1971. Tremellales, Flora Neotropica 6: 1-153.

Malysheva, V., Spirin, V. 2017. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Auriculariales (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) with stereoid basidiocarps, Fungal Biology 121(8): 689-715. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2017.05.001

Mulligan, M., Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., Hamilton, L.S. 2011. Modeling the
tropics-wide extent and distribution of cloud forest and cloud forest loss, with
implications for conservation priority. In: M., Bruijnzeel, L.A., Scatena, F.N., Hamilton
(eds.). Tropical Montane Cloud Forests, 14–38. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511778384.0
Pinto, L., Bede, L., Paese, A., Fonseca, M., Paglia, A., Lamas, I. 2006. Mata Atlântica brasileira: Os desafios para a conservação da biodiversidade de um hotspot mundial. In: Rocha, C.F.D., Bergallo, H.G., Van Sluys, M. and Alves, M.A.S. (eds), Biologia da conservação: Essências, 1st edition, pp. 91-118. Rima Editora.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted