• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • DDPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Geastrum verrucoramulosum T.S. Cabral, J.O. Sousa & Baseia

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Scientific name
Geastrum verrucoramulosum
T.S. Cabral, J.O. Sousa & Baseia
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
Proposed by
Dirce Komura
Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, Tiara Cabral, Dirce Komura, Fabiano Branco Rocha
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes


This remarkable species with a unique morphology was described for the Amazon rainforest, based on only two sites from the states of Amazonas and Acre (white sand forest and “terra firme” forest), in Brazil. It is possible that the species is widely distributed across the Amazon forest, due to this we could not understand population population trends and extent of decline. However, there are few records of this species since its description, even though several field trips have been carried in Amazonia. Amazon Forest has been going through intensive deforestation and other anthropogenic threats, which will cause severe biodiversity losses. As there is scarce records of the species so far, it is assessed as DD.

Taxonomic notes

Geastrum verrucoramulosum T.S. Cabral, J.O. Sousa & Baseia is an easily recognized species, different from all described Geastrum, since it has an elongated and ramified pseudostipe and exoperidium with a densely verrucose surface (Cabral et al. 2017).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

This species is so far endemic to Brazil, found only in the Brazilian Amazon Forest. The species was found on White-Sand Forest (“campinarana”) in Acre State and in Terra Firme Forest in Amazonas State. In this way, it is probable that the species may have a wide distribution in the Amazon basin.

Population and Trends

The species was described based on collections of 2012, from Acre (3 specimens) and Amazonas (1 specimen) states. After that, just one specimen was found in Ducke Reserve in 2018, one of the most sampled areas within the Brazilian Amazon, with 7,306 specimens of fungi deposited in Brazilian Fungaria. Despite its remarkable morphology, and several expeditions in the Brazilian Amazonian Forest have been carried out during this period, including by specialists in gasteroid fungi, no more collections were found.  So Geastrum verrucoramulosum could be considered as a rare fungus, even with a putative broad distribution in Amazonian Forest.
The Amazon Forest is undergoing rapid deforestation and facing increased fire frequency and intensity, following years of decline (INPE 2020).
The species is suspected to undergo a population decline of up to 15% in the next 20 years (three generations). The population decline was estimated in light of the loss of suitable habitat (Zhang et al. 2015) and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2001, Haddad et al. 2015).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

This saprotrophic species is terrestrial and grows on soil in clusters of basidiomata, found both in an open forest composed mainly of shrubs on white-sand soil (called ‘campinarana’) and in upland dense forest on clay soil, during the rainy season. So far, the species is restricted to the Amazon Rainforest.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland ForestSubtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland


Amazon Forest has been going through intensive deforestation and other anthropogenic threats, which will cause severe biodiversity losses in a long-term period, especially as a consequence of habitat loss and reduction of habitat quality (Swann et al. 2015). The main threats are due to the expansion of construction of roads, hydroelectric dams, and deforestation for cattle and agriculture (monoculture) (MapBiomas 2021). In addition, the sites where the species were found in Amazonas, even being protected areas, are located in the metropolitan region of Manaus, so there is a great urban expansion pressure (Ramos et al. 2018). The area in Acre is located in a deforestation hotspot in Amazonia, along the major roads known as Arc of Deforestation, the rate of destruction is faster even inside of protected areas (Finer; Spore 2020). To date, c.18% of the region’s tropical forest has been cleared, with average annual losses in the last decade of 1.8 million hectares per year (INPE 2020). The development of infrastructure is also recognized as a contributing driver of this forest loss. Lack of enforcement of laws and policies for effective management of the Amazon is contributing to the loss and degradation of habitat.

Agro-industry farmingAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingRoads & railroadsIntentional use: large scale (species being assessed is the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityLarge dams

Conservation Actions

All known records near from Manaus were collected in protected areas. Thus, the main action to prevent a possible decline of the species is the preservation of quality of habitat through reinforcement of fiscalization and the inclusion of the local population and public action to ensure sustainable urban growth. Creation and proper maintenance of additional conservation areas are needed. The promotion of citizen science to include the local population and students in the preservation of these areas would be highly beneficial. Effective enforcement of conservation laws and policies is needed.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionAwareness & communicationsNational level

Research needed

The species is easily recognizable in the field, but further studies are needed, especially to increase knowledge about the geographical range. It is found on soil, probably as saprotroph, but research is needed to understand other possible interactions, as mycorrhizal, since white-sand soil areas have a high diversity of ectomycorrhizal species (Vasco-Palacios et al. 2018).

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade



Berglund H; Jonsson BG 2001. Predictability of plant and fungal species richness
of old-growth boreal forest islands. J Veg Sci 12: 857-866.

Cabral TS; Sousa JO; Silva BDB; Martín MP; Clement CR; Baseia IG. 2022. Updates on Geastrum sect. Exareolata, with a description of a striking new species from the Neotropics. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 308:23

Cabral TS; Sousa JO; Silva BDB; Martín MP; Clement CR; Baseia IG. 2017. A remarkable new species of Geastrum with an elongated branched stipe. Mycoscience 58: 344–350.

Finer M; Mamani N, Spore J (2020) Amazon Deforestation Hotspots 2021. MAAP: 147.

Haddad NM; Brudvig LA; Clobert J; Davies KF; Gonzalez A; Holt RD; Lovejoy T; Sexton JO; Burt MA; et al. 2015. Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Sci Adv 1(2)

Mycoportal Collection Portal. In: https://mycoportal.org/portal/collections/list.php. Access in: 06-Nov-2023.

Ramos CJP; Graça PMLA; Fearnside PM. 2018. Deforestation Dynamics on an Amazonian Peri-Urban Frontier: Simulating the Influence of the Rio Negro Bridge in Manaus, Brazil. Environmental Management, 62: 1134–1149.

SpeciesLink network. In: http://www.specieslink.net/search. Access in: 06-Nov-2023.

Swann AL; Longo M; Knox RG; Lee E; Moorcroft PR. 2015. Future deforestation in the Amazon and consequences for South American climate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 214, 12-24.

Vasco-Palacios AM; Hernandez J; Peñuela-Mora MC; Franco-Molano AE; Boekhout T. 2018. Ectomycorrhizal fungi diversity in a white sand forest in western Amazonia. Fungal Ecology 31: 9–18.

Zhang K et al. 2015. The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use. Global Change Biol 21: 2561-2587.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted