• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii Baltazar, Gorjón & Rajchenb.

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Scientific name
Acanthocorticium brueggemannii
Author
Baltazar, Gorjón & Rajchenb.
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Agaricales
Family
Incertae sedis
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU C2a(ii)
Proposed by
Juliano M. Baltazar
Assessors
Juliano M. Baltazar, Francisco Calaça, Diogo H. Costa-Rezende, Genivaldo Alves-Silva, Luciana da Canêz, Marcela Monteiro, Larissa Trierveiler-Pereira
Comments etc.
Sara Karla de A. A. Carvalho
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is expected to occur in the Subtropical Brazilian Dense Ombrophilous Forest. The species is saprotrophic and its basidiomes grow on the lower side of fallen trunks of hardwoods lying on the forest ground. The only known site of occurrence is less than 20 km distant from the sea, but about 450 m asl. within the Dense Ombrophilous Forest. It is only known from two collections at the same trail in the same site located in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. It is expected to occur along the Subtropical Brazilian Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest Domain), which is restricted to the Coastal Zone. This distribution is expected because the adjacent areas are well studied regarding their corticioid funga. The main threat to A. brueggemannii is loss of habitat and population size, limited to only one subpopulation. About 60% of the Brazilian population is concentrated in the Coastal Zone (Rezende et al. 2018). The urbanization of the Brazilian Coastal Zone is the most important factor for loss of habitat, but there is also an expansion of silvicultural areas. Climate change is also an important threat since it can promote important changes in the environment of the species. The species is considered to be rare, and the total population is estimated at no more than 10,000 mature individuals, distributed in a single subpopulation. The current cover of Atlantic Forest is reduced to 28% of its original extension, and most of the remaining cover is drastically fragmented (Rezende et al. 2018). The population decline is estimated at 15% in the last 30 years, and a decline of 15% is also expected for the next 30 years. This decline primarily results from habitat loss and degradation, besides climate change. Considering the population size concentrated in only one subpopulation and habitat loss and degradation, this species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU) under C2a(ii), based on a suspected future population decline.


Taxonomic notes

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii was described by Baltazar et al. (2015) as a new genus and species. It has no synonyms. Molecular evidence places the species among cyphelloid fungi within Agaricales, which could make this species important to understand several questions regarding the evolution of Agaricomycetes.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is a corticioid species only known from its type locality. It has a small population with a restricted distribution in a threatened area.

RED LIST JUSTIFICATION
Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is currently known from two specimens collected at the same site in the type locality. Its occurrence is expected to be limited to the Subtropical Brazilian Dense Ombrophilous Forest, a highly threatened ecosystem. The species is assessed as Vulnerable (VU) under C2a(ii).


Geographic range

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is only known from two collections at the same trail in the same site, one in September, 2010 and another in March, 2012. This site is located in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, at the border of a large Conservation Area. It is expected to occur along the
Brazilian Subtropical Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest Domain). This shouthern distribuition is expected because the adjacent State of São Paulo is well studied regarding its corticioid funga, besides differences in vegetation and climatic conditions above subtropical region.


Population and Trends

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is considered to have a distribution restricted to mature forests in the Subtropical Ombrophilous Dense Forest in the Southern Brazil. Despite its low detectability, the potential area of occurrence and other adjacent areas have been intensively sampled by experts and collaborators in the last decades, but only two specimens being found in a single locality. For these reasons the species is considered to be rare, with up to 500 potential sites and up to 20 mature individuals in each site. Total population is estimated at no more than 10,000 mature individuals, distributed in a single subpopulation. The species population was probably larger in the past but the number of sites may have decreased considerably. The current cover of Atlantic Forest is reduced to 28% of its original extension, and most of the remaining cover is drastically fragmented (Rezende et al. 2018). The habitat decline in the Atlantic Forest is estimated at 7.5% in the last 30 years (Bicudo da Silva et al. 2020), and considering the annual average loss within this time lapse it is possible to estimate an habitat loss of 7.5% in the next 30 years. Considering that habitat loss is accompanied by a major loss in habitat quality (Joly et al. 2014), and a population change of 30 years (= three generations) for the species, the population decline is estimated at 15% in the last 30 years. A population decline of 15% is also expected for the next 30 years.

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Acanthocorticium brueggemannii is expected to occur in the Subtropical Brazilian Dense Ombrophilous Forest. The species is saprotrophic and its basidiomes grow on the lower side of fallen trunks of hardwoods lying on the forest ground. The only known site of occurrence is less than 20 km distant from the sea, but about 450 m asl. The site is within the Dense Ombrophilous Forest, a typical vegetation type from the Coastal zone of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Biome.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

The main threat to A. brueggemannii is loss of habitat. Its occurrence is expected to be restricted to the Coastal Zone of the State of Santa Catarina. About 60% of the Brazilian population is concentrated in the Coastal Zone (Rezende et al. 2018). The urbanization of the Brazilian Coastal Zone is the most important factor for loss of habitat. There is also an expansion of silvicultural areas with exotic tree species. Pinus spp. are one of the most cultivated trees, and there is no evidence that A. brueggemannii can grow on other woods than hardwoods. Climate change is also an important threat since it can promote important changes in the environment of the species.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasTourism & recreation areasSmall-holder farmingAgro-industry farmingScale Unknown/UnrecordedSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Recreational activitiesHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

The main action is to preserve the Atlantic Forest Domain, especially the Dense Ombrophilous Forest, keeping the protection of Conservation Areas, creation of new ones, and promoting the restoration of habitats whenever possible. The preservation of pristine forests could be critical for the maintenance of this species, since it occurs in large fallen hardwood logs. The application of current legislation would be very important to reach these goals. Furthermore, preventing the urbanization process is also very important to mitigate the loss of habitat.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionInvasive/problematic species controlHabitat & natural process restorationPolicies and regulations

Research needed

More studies are needed to find more specimens of this species and possibly new sites of occurrence. Recent research brings to light evidence that an undescribed species of Acanthocorticium could establish ECM relationships (Contreras-Pacheco et al. unpublished data). Considered that, it is also needed to confirm whether A. brueggemannii is a biotrophic or necrotrophic species.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There are no reported uses and trades.

Unknown

Bibliography

Baltazar JM, Gorjón SP, Pildain MB, et al (2015) Acanthocorticium brueggemannii, a new corticioid genus and species related to cyphelloid fungi in the euagarics clade (Agaricales, Basidiomycota). Botany 93:453–463. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2015-0053

Bicudo da Silva RF, Millington JDA, Moran EF, et al (2020) Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landsc Urban Plan 204:103948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103948

Joly CA, Metzger JP, Tabarelli M (2014) Experiences from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Ecological findings and conservation initiatives. New Phytol 204:459–473. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12989

Rezende CL, Scarano FR, Assad ED, et al (2018) From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspect Ecol Conserv 16:208–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PECON.2018.10.002


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted