• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • VUPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Favolus elongoporus (Drechsler-Santos & Ryvarden) Zmitr. & Kovalenko

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Scientific name
Favolus elongoporus
Author
(Drechsler-Santos & Ryvarden) Zmitr. & Kovalenko
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Polyporaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c; C1+2a(ii)
Proposed by
Denis Zabin
Assessors
Denis Zabin, Thiago Kossmann, Nelson Menolli Jr, Maria Eduarda de Andrade Borges
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha, Gregory Mueller

Assessment Notes

Justification

Favolus elongoporus is a conspicuous but rare polypore species described in 2008. It is known from only three records, two in Brazil and another from the southern highlands of Peru. In Brazil, it is known from a lowland seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in the Atlantic Forest from Northeastern Brazil and in the Amazon forest from Pará state. It is expected that the species occurs throughout the Atlantic Forest from Northeastern Brazil and up to the Amazon forest in Brazil and neighboring countries. Despite its high detectability and large sampling efforts focusing on polypore diversity within its known and potential distribution in Brazil, F. elongoporus is known from very few collections and is thus considered a rare species. Even though the area of potential suitable habitat is very large, the total population size is estimated to be no more than 10,000 mature individuals in around 1000 potential additional sites. Threats to its habitat, primarily due to deforestation and anthropogenic disturbances, including increased fire frequencies and extreme droughts due to climate change in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest regions, contribute to an estimated population decline of 36-38% over the next three generations. It is therefore listed as Vulnerable [A3c; C1+2a(ii)].


Taxonomic notes

Favolus elongoporus (Drechsler-Santos & Ryvarden) Zmitr. & Kovalenko, International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (Redding) 18(1): 33 (2016)
= Polyporus elongoporus Drechsler-Santos & Ryvarden, Syn. Fung. (Oslo) 25: 39 (2008)


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Favolus elongoporus is a remarkable rare species so far known from Brazil and Peru. It is known from only three collections, one in the Atlantic Forest in Northeastern Brazil, the second in the Brazilian Amazon and the other from the southern highlands of Peru. Both the Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest are unique and highly threatened ecosystems, being disturbed by anthropogenic activities such as deforestation and fragmentation derived mainly by urban growth, the expansion of cattle, commodities plantations and timber extraction, but also by increased fire frequencies and extreme droughts intensified by anthropogenic climate change.  As there is an important ongoing habitat decline of this species, its extinction threat level should be assessed. 


Geographic range

Favolus elongoporus was described based on a single collection found in a lowland semideciduous forest remnant of Atlantic Forest (Drechsler-Santos et al. 2008), and is currently known from only three sites: one in the municipality of São Lourenço da Mata in Pernambuco state, where the holotype was collected, at the ‘Estação Ecológica do Tapucará’; the second in the municipality of Oriximinã in Pará state; and the third close to the Quincemil-Camanti communities, in the province of Quispianchis from the department of Cusco, Peru (Palacio et al. 2021), both in the Amazon Forest. The species is expected to be found across the Northern Atlantic Forest in Brazil and in the Amazon Forest in Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. The core of the population is expected to be distributed in the Amazon, and to a lesser extent, in the Atlantic Forest.


Population and Trends

Favolus elongoporus is a conspicuous wood decaying species with medium to large-sized whitish basidiomata and subgregarious growth, contrasting with its substrate. This species is known from only three sites, one in the Atlantic Forest in Northeastern Brazil, and two in the Amazon Forest in Brazil and Peru. Since this species is conspicuous and is known from only three collections, despite large sampling efforts focusing on polypore diversity within its known and potential distribution in Brazil, F. elongoporus is considered a rare species. Additionally, it is expected that the species distribution is limited to higher latitudes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, as historical high sampling effort has been made in Southern and Southeastern Atlantic Forest regions, where F. elongoporus was never collected. Given its rarity across its potential range, it is crucial to investigate the specific biotic and abiotic requirements of the species. Additionally, considering its high detectability and large potential distribution, the species is estimated to occur in around 1000 additional sites, each one holding up to 10 mature individuals, with a total of up to 10,000 mature individuals.

The habitat where it is found is now much rarer than it was in the past, as the Atlantic Forest is now reduced to 28% of what it once was, with the remaining areas being mostly fragmented and not fully mature (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018) and the Amazon is continuously being deforested and degraded, which results in direct population decline and habitat quality loss (Lapola et al. 2023). Considering the size of the Amazon Forest in relation to the Northern Atlantic Forest, we consider that the core of the population size to be found in the Amazon, with the Atlantic portion accounting for no more than 10% of total population. This is also considered for the population decline. Considering the annual average deforestation of the Northern Atlantic Forest of 0.39% between 2012 and 2022, a population loss of 40% is suspected in the Atlantic portion of the population over the next 50 years (MapBiomas 2024). For the Amazon Forest, a population decline based on loss of habitat and habitat quality due to deforestation is estimated at 36% based on deforestation rates (Zhang et al. 2015). Total population loss over the next 50 years (3 generations-length) is estimated at 36-38%. Population decline was estimated in light of extension loss of suitable habitat and the putative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2003, Haddad et al. 2015).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Favolus elongoporus is an annual wood-decaying polypore causing a white-rot in large logs. Basidiomata of this species are found subgregariously on dead wood of unidentified angiosperms and are known from a preserved remnant of seasonal semideciduous forest in Pernambuco state from Northeastern Brazil, in a disturbed forest patch in the Brazilian Amazon in Pará state and from the southern highlands of Peru. Considering its rarity, it is possible that this species could have specific biotic or abiotic requirements that are still unknown.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

In general, the threats to F. elongoporus are the degradation and fragmentation of its habitat, which also leads to habitat quality loss. The causes are mainly climate change, deforestation, and other anthropogenic disturbances of the Amazon and Atlantic Forest in Brazil, which reflects in a direct population decline and habitat quality loss. The Amazon domain in Brazil suffers from continued deforestation and habitat fragmentation derived mainly by the expansion of cattle and soybean plantations and timber extraction, but also by the increased fire frequencies and extreme droughts due to climate change (Lapola et al. 2023; Zhang et al. 2015). Additionally, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities due to its high diversity, endemism rates, and habitat loss (Myers et al. 2000). Between 2012 and 2022 the Northern Brazilian Atlantic Forest has suffered an annual deforestation rate of 0.39%, with evidence for a continuing decline in the same rates (MapBiomas 2024). This phytogeographical domain is estimated to have only 28% of its vegetation remaining, with the remnants being intensely fragmented and composed mostly by secondary forests (Rezende et al. 2018; Tabarelli et al. 2010). About 60% of the Brazilian population lives in the Atlantic Forest, mainly in coastal areas, where the country’s largest cities are located (Rezende et al. 2018). Other threats to the Atlantic Forest include an increase in fire frequency and intensity, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and the interaction between these factors (Brooks and Balmford 1996, Tabarelli et al. 2006, Pinto et al. 2006).

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasAgro-industry farmingScale Unknown/UnrecordedAgro-industry grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensityHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

Direct conservation actions primarily include effective management and maintenance of protected areas where the species is potentially found, along with a robust sustainable framework for conservation plans and economic development in Brazil and other countries with potential habitat. Increased and better monitoring of protected areas should also be conducted to prevent illegal use and occupancy.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionHabitat & natural process restorationCaptive breeding/artificial propagationNational levelNational level

Research needed

Species within Favolus are generally regarded as wood-decay angiosperm generalists but host specificity is poorly investigated for the genus, requiring further studies. While various species of Favolus are regarded as being edible and have the potential for being commercially cultivated, the edibility status of this species remains unknown. Additionally, considering its disjunct distribution in Peru, in the Brazilian Amazon and the Atlantic Forest of Northeastern Brazil from only three collections, new surveys should be made to further elucidate its distribution in Brazil, as well as within the Amazon in other South American countries. In addition to conducting new surveys, efforts should be made to isolate the mycelium of the species for potential ex-situ conservation measures. Given its rarity across its potential range, despite decades of sampling efforts, it is crucial to investigate the specific biotic and abiotic requirements of the species for effective conservation strategies.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There is no report of the edibility or other known use/trade for basidiomata of F. elongoporus


Bibliography


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted