• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Borofutus dhakanus Hosen & Zhu L. Yang

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Scientific name
Borofutus dhakanus
Hosen & Zhu L. Yang
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Catia Canteiro
Susana P. Cunha, Susana C. Gonçalves
Comments etc.
Catia Canteiro

Assessment Notes


Borofutus dhakanus is a boletoid species from Tropical Asia. Since its description in 2012 it has been found in several sites and the population size is estimated at a minimum of 80000 individuals. Deforestation in part of its range, in Southeast Asia, presents a threat through habitat reduction, and has likely caused a decrease in population size. However, given the multiple possible plant hosts and the wide distribution of the species, it is difficult to calculate and estimate of population decline. Therefore the species is assessed as Least Concern (LC).

Taxonomic notes

Type species of the monotypic genus Borofutus, established using morphological and phylogenetic evidence (Hosen et al. 2013).

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

Borofutus dhakanus has so far been found in Thailand, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia and Vietnam.

Population and Trends

B. dhakanus has been found in at least 8 sites, taking into account the specimens described in the literature (Hosen et al. 2013, Parihar et al. 2014, Thongkantha et al. 2017) and GBIF records (human observation and preserved specimen records with location description or coordinates - eDNA records were excluded). The species also appears to have a wide distribution across Tropical Asia, and a wide area of suitable habitat, so population size is estimated at a minimum of 80000 individuals, following Dahlberg and Mueller (2011) guidelines.
Since B. dhakanus might have different ectomycorrhizal hosts throughout its range, it is difficult to estimate population size trends from changes in area of habitat. However, given that Southeast Asia is a considerable deforestation hotspot, it is likely that population size is in decline due to loss of habitat in this part of the species range, specifically in Malaysia, Vietnam and Thailand.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Upon its description B. dhakanus was presumed to be ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta, but it has since been found it in a forest dominated by Dipterocarpus sp. (Thongkantha et al. 2017). Moreover, the distribution of this fungi is wider than that of S. robusta (POWO 2022), which suggests it may have other potential hosts. Grows solitary or in small groups, in dry deciduous forest with clayey soil.

Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest


Deforestation in part of this species’ range, in Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand, may present a threat to this species habitat (Global Forest Watch 2022). Some Dipterocarpus species in the region have also been attributed threatened categories by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (e.g. Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Dipterocarpus intricatus and Dipterocarpus costatus) due to a population decline cause by agricultural expansion and logging. Another possible host, Shorea robusta is assessed as Least Concern (Ashton 1998), though it has been annotated as needing to be updated.

Shifting agricultureUnintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)

Conservation Actions

Research needed

More information on host species could help estimate the potential distribution of B. dhakanus.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

B. dhakanus is an edible species and has been found selling at a market in Thailand (Thongkantha et al. 2017).

Food - human


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted