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Coltricia permollis Baltazar & Gibertoni

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Scientific name
Coltricia permollis
Author
Baltazar & Gibertoni
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Hymenochaetales
Family
Hymenochaetaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2021-10-20
IUCN Red List Category
VU
IUCN Red List Criteria
C2a(ii)
Assessors
Baltazar, J.M., Bittencourt, F., Neves, M.A., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Costa-Rezende, D.H., Trierveiler-Pereira, L., Vieira de Miranda, M. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R.
Reviewers
Mueller, G.M.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/209595443/209596030

Justification

Coltricia permollis is restricted to sandy soils near the coast in Brazilian Atlantic Forest domain. It was described in 2010 based on seven specimens with only one additional specimen recorded since, despite searching in appropriate habitats in areas regularly studied by experts. The species is restricted to the Brazilian Atlantic Coast, which houses much of the Brazilian population (above 60%) and is experiencing an increasing urbanization and the introduction of exotic tree species such as Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. which also introduce exotic ectomycorrhizal fungal species that can potentially compete with native species including C. permollis. Its population is estimated at c. 7,500-9,000 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation. The species was likely more common in the past, but due to factors such as urbanization and exotic tree plantations the population has, and continues to decline. The species is assessed as Vulnerable under C2a(ii).

Geographic range

Coltricia permollis is currently known from three sites in Northeastern Brazil — two in the State of Paraíba (PB), one in the State of Sergipe (SE) — and one additional site in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Coltricia permollis is expected to occur throughout the Atlantic Forest domain in areas with a predominance of sandy soil near to the coast. Despite it being known from Santa Catarina, it is expected to be less frequent in subtropical areas.

Population and Trends

Coltricia permollis occurs in historical areas well sampled by experts. We assume that it is rare throughout its distribution. It is expected to occur in sandy forests along the Coastal Atlantic Forest in 250-300 sites. Its population is estimated at ca. 7,500-9,000 mature individuals, restricted to one subpopulation. The species was likely more common in the past, but due to factors such as urbanization and exotic tree plantations the population has declined, and continues to so. The habitat decline in the Atlantic Forest is estimated to be 12.5% in the last 50 years (Bicudo da Silva et al. 2020). This habitat loss rate is estimated to continue in the future, which, coupled with the fragmentation and the resulting loss of habitat quality in the Atlantic Forest (Joly et al. 2014), could result in a population decline of 25% in the next 50 years (3 generations).

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Specimens of Coltricia permollis were collected on the ground in sandy soil, usually among litter, in areas belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain. Specimens from Paraíba were found in areas of Restinga, a typical vegetational type from low lands along the Atlantic Coast. It is worth noting that five of the eight known specimens were gathered on the same day (May 2009) in Mataraca (PB), in a Restinga forest owned by a mining company. The other specimen from Paraíba was collected in July 2001, in Mamanguape, about 30 km from the site in Mataraca. The last specimen from Northeastern Brazil was also collected in July 2001 in Itabaiana (SE), about 500 km from sites in PB. The site in SE is characterized by a transition between the coastal zone (Atlantic Forest) and Caatinga. The collection from SC was made in February 2013 in a resort located on the border of a large conservation unit. The vegetation is characterized by Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Atlantic Forest domain). All sites were close to the Atlantic Coast (less than 40 km) and found in sandy soil. 

Regarding the phenology, all collections were made during the wet season in their respective regions. Basidiomes of C. permollis grow among litter and sometimes are gregarious. Since it has rarely been found, even in areas well explored by specialists, it is very likely that C. permollis is a rare species. This species potentially forms ectomycorrhizal associations with certain plants as other Coltricia species have been confirmed as mycorrhizal (Tedersoo et al. [2007] and Corrales et al. [2018] have reported additional ECM fungal species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest).

Threats

Loss of habitat is the main threat to Coltricia permollis since it is only known from the most populous parts of Brazil, i.e. the Atlantic Coast. There are several Conservation Units in the zone, but the current preserved area is reduced to 28% of the original covered area of the Atlantic Forest. Most remnants are fragmented and smaller than 50 ha with only 30% within Conservation Units (Rezende et al. 2018). The main causes of loss of habitat is urbanization and plantations of exotic trees such as Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. The introduction of exotic trees can also be accompanied by the introduction of invasive ECM fungi, leading to substitution of indigenous ECM fungi. The Atlantic Forest is also the most urbanized Brazilian domain and is home to 125 million inhabitants, or about 60% of the Brazilian population (Rezende et al. 2018), while climate change can drastically affect the Atlantic Forest, and combined with loss of habitat can lead to a process of 'savannization'. Finally, one site of occurrence is located in a zone with mining and wind farms.

Conservation Actions

The main action to preserve Coltricia permollis is the preservation of the Atlantic Forest, keeping the protection of Conservation Areas, creation of new ones, and promoting the restoration of habitats whenever possible. The enforcement of current legislation would be very important to reach these goals. Furthermore, preventing the urbanization process and introduction of exotic trees is is needed to mitigate the loss of habitat.

It is also important to carry out studies to understand if C. permollis forms ECM and, if so, with which plants it associates. Additional surveys in Restinga Forests in the Atlantic Forest as well as other areas with sandy soil like those in the Amazon which is suspected to have an evolutionary connection with the northeastern Atlantic Forest (Xavier de Lima et al. 2018) and host ECM species (Roy et al. 2016) are needed to confirm its distribution and population size. Molecular studies are also needed, with sequencing of basidiomes and mycorrhizal roots tips needed to confirm the ECM status of the species.

Use and Trade

There are no reported uses and trade of this species.

Source and Citation

Baltazar, J.M., Bittencourt, F., Neves, M.A., Kossmann, T., Martins da Cunha, K., Costa-Rezende, D.H., Trierveiler-Pereira, L., Vieira de Miranda, M. & Drechsler-Santos, E.R. 2022. Coltricia permollis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T209595443A209596030. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2022-1.RLTS.T209595443A209596030.en .Accessed on 31 July 2023

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