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  • Under Assessment
  • ENPreliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Xylaria culicicephala A.I. Romero & Hladki

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Scientific name
Xylaria culicicephala
A.I. Romero & Hladki
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Cup-fungi, Truffles and Allies
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
EN C2(ii)
Proposed by
Francisco Kuhar
Camille Truong, Francisco Kuhar, Donald Pfister
Comments etc.
James Westrip
David Minter

Assessment Notes


This species is only known from forest in the southern Yungas of Argentina. This habitat is deteriorating outside of reserves, and the population is thought to be in decline. Overall the population size is thought to be small (c.400 mature individuals), and so the species is listed as Endangered under criterion C2a(ii).

Taxonomic notes

No recorded synonyms.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

A rare species only found seven times after the original publication.(Esteban Sir, Unpublished) although the stromata are conspicuous. The absence of further records as well as the high level of disturbance in the past, along with the fragmentation of the original habitat, suggest that this species might be endangered.

Geographic range

Only known from the southern Yungas (see map). Fungarium materials from the three provinces are available (Salta, Tucumán and Jujuy).

Population and Trends

The species might be well distributed in the southern Yungas (E. Sir pers. comm.). The have been only seven further records (unpublished) subsequent to Sir et al. (2005). The species occurs at low frequency where it has been studied, and scaling up to take account of other areas of suitable habitat where the species may occur would give a population size of 400 mature individuals. Since the reserves in the area have a high conservation status, we suppose that the numbers in reserves are stable, but forest outside of the reserves is in danger and decreasing.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

This species is probably endophytic, and is seen fruiting as a saprotroph on dead/decayed wood, probably causing a white rot as reported for many Xylaria.

Subtropical/Tropical Dry Forest


Reduction of the native environment and fragmentation of the forest by activities such as citrus or sugar cane culture.

Agro-industry plantations

Conservation Actions

At the present, several natural reserves protect the remains of these landscapes (e.g. Los Diques Provincial Reserve, Reserva Natural Finca Las Costas, Las Yungas Biosphere Reserve). More initiatives ensuring interconnection of the the patchy distribution of these forests are needed, and to increase awareness of this species within the protected area network.

Resource & habitat protectionHabitat & natural process restorationAwareness & communications

Research needed

More research is needed on the life history of the species, its dispersal strategy, the specific substrates and its associated plants as well as on the presence of this species in similar locations in northern Argentina. Esteban Sir suggested in a personal communication that research is required to see whether the species may also occur in Bolivia.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecology

Use and Trade

There are no uses reported.


Sir, E. B., Hladki, A. I., Parrado, M. F., & Romero, A. I. (2005). Biodiversity of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) and their hosts in protected areas from Tucumán (Argentina). collections, 2007, 2009b-2010.

Blundo, C., & Malizia, L. R. (2009). Impacto del aprovechamiento forestal en la estructura y diversidad de la Selva Pedemontana. En: Selva pedemontana de las Yungas, historia natural, ecología y manejo de un ecosistema en peligro. Brown, AD, Blendinger, PG, Lomáscolo, T. y García Bes, P.(Eds.), 387-406.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted