• 1Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Arthonia calabrella Puntillo

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Scientific name
Arthonia calabrella
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
Sonia Ravera
Sonia Ravera
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

The species is closely related to Arthonia ilicina Taylor and Arthonia ilicinella Nyl., but distinguished by thicker apotecia and smaller generally 4-septate ascospores becoming brown and warty when old. It is considered the termophilic vicariant of A. ilicina mainly in the hilly and submountain belts where it grows mostly on Fraxinus ornus L.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

This species occurs only locally in humid riparian forests of Central-Southern Italy. It is threatened by unintentional effects from wood harvesting and by fire escaped from agricultural lands.
Criterion A: There are no reports about the trends of population size over long time periods, so it is not possible to apply this criterion. However a past and ceased reduction (57% from 1931 to now) of the habitat is known for one of the locations.
Criterion B: B2 could be applied as the the area of occupancy (AOO) is 36 km2. However, the species does not fit the condition of also meeting two subcriteria. It only fits the subcriterion B1a (severe fragmentation and/or number of location ≤10). However no information is available regarding continuing declines and extreme fluctuations.
Criterion C: No information is available about the total number of individuals of this species. Thus, subcriteria C1 and C2 are not applicable.
Criterion D: The total number of individuals is unknown, the area of occupancy (AOO) is bigger than 20 km2 and the number of locations is 9 (>5). Therefore, the species does not fit this criterion.
Criterion E: No quantitative analyses have been carried out.

The species is assessed as NT until more research on the species, particularly the trends of habitat quality over long time periods, is carried out. It is possible because the taxon meets the area requirements under criterion B for threatened (EOO <20,000 km2 and/or AOO <2,000 km2), it is severely fragmented and occurs at 9 locations but the population is not declining and there are no extreme fluctuations.

Geographic range

This species occurs in three widely disjunct regions of Central-Southern Italy: 1) Latium Coast with a single subpopuation on the Tolfa mountains; Adriatic-Ionian Coas where many subpopulations are severely fragmented and dispersal; 3) Calabria with 3 subpopulations, scattered across a single ridge system (Aspromonte). The total area of occupancy in this ca. 90,000 km².

Population and Trends

This species is considered only locally abundant but no detailed assessments of population size and possible decline exist.

Population Trend: Uncertain

Habitat and Ecology

Arthonia calabrella is an epiphytic species growing mostly on smooth, base-rich bark of broadleved deciduous trees (e.g. Fraxinus) in humid riparian forests.

Temperate Forest


Threatened by unintentional effects from logging and wood harvesting (5.3.3. according IUCN –CMP United Classification of Direct Threats) and by fire escaped from established agricultural lands (7.1.1. according IUCN –CMP United Classification of Direct Threats).
The location on the Ionian coast is within the borders of protected areas and it is known a strong reduction of the habitat in previous decades. It is likely that intensive forestry has led to a population decline.

Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Increase in fire frequency/intensity

Conservation Actions

Most (55%) of the locations are within the borders of protected areas.

Research needed

Additional research is requiring on population size, distribution and trend

Population size, distribution & trends

Use and Trade


Nimis P.L., Tretiach M., 1999. Itinera Adriatica - Lichens from the eastern part of the Italian peninsula. Studia Geobotanica 18: 51-106.
Nimis P.L., Martellos S., 2008: ITALIC - The Information System on Italian Lichens. Version 4.0. University of Trieste, Dept. of Biology, IN4.0/1 (http://dbiodbs.univ.trieste.it/).
Potenza G., Fascetti S., Ravera S., Puntillo D. 2010. Lichens from sandy dune habitats on the Ionian Coast (Basilicata, southern Italy). Cryptogamie, Mycologie. 31 (1): 59-65.
Puntillo D., 1995. Contributi alle conoscenze floristiche sui licheni d’ Italia. VIII. Florula lichenica del Bosco di Santa Maria (Serra San Bruno, Vibo Valentia, Calabria). Webbia 50 (1): 51-66.
Puntillo D., 1996.  I Licheni di Calabria. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, Monogr. 22. 229 pp.
Ravera S., 2001. Studia lichenologica in Central Italy. 1. Interesting epiphytic species from Lazio (Central Italy). Allionia 38: 187-193.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted