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  • Under Assessment
  • NTPreliminary Assessed
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Boletus roseoalbidus (Alessio & Littini) G. Moreno & Heykoop

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Scientific name
Boletus roseoalbidus
Author
(Alessio & Littini) G. Moreno & Heykoop
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Boletales
Family
Boletaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
NT C2a(i)
Proposed by
Claudia Perini
Assessors
Claudia Perini, Tatyana Svetasheva, A. Martyn Ainsworth, Susana C. Gonçalves
Editors
Claudia Perini
Contributors
Paola Angelini, ISPRA Network for the study of Mycological Diversity, Alona Yu. Biketova
Comments etc.
James Westrip, Odysseas Theodorou, Anders Dahlberg

Assessment Notes

Needs motivation and editing

Justification

Pulchroboletus roseoalbidus is a rare ectomycorrhizal fungal species confined to the Mediterranean area of Europe. It grows solitary or more often caespitose in poor dry habitats at the border or in open areas of thermophilous broadleaved forests, preferring deciduous but observed also in evergreen oak woods.

The species has a restricted range and grows in small scattered localities. Described from Sardinia island in 1987, the species was then rarely found in different sites from continental Italy and the two islands Sardinia and Sicily, to the west to France (Corsica) and Spain, to the east Greece and Bulgaria. The largest number of localities are encountered in Italy with nearly 60 known.
The total population size is estimated as 7,300-14,000 mature individuals, most of the records are of less than 10 mycelial individuals (2-6 genets). Population reduction has been observed and will continue into the future given that the main threats are changing of management (few thinning with the loose of open areas or clearcutting and wood harvesting), fire, and habitat degradation due to anthropogenic activities, but also deseases of woods itshelf, like the chestnut coppices.
Pulchroboletus roseoalbidus qualifies for listing as Near Threatened under criterion C2a(i) as its total population size is estimated to be under 20,000, and population decline.


Taxonomic notes

Current Name:
Pulchroboletus roseoalbidus (Alessio & Littini) Gelardi, Vizzini & Simonini, in Gelardi, Simonini, Ercole & Vizzini
Synonymy:
Boletus roseoalbidus (Alessio & Littini) G. Moreno & Heykoop,
Rubinoboletus roseoalbidus (Alessio & Littini) De Kesel
Xerocomus roseoalbidus Alessio & Littini
Pulveroboletus albopruinosus Cetto & Zucch


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

First observed on the island Sardinia in 1986, it was described as uncommon growing at the edge of deciduous woods in more open areas in extremely arid climatic conditions. This ectomychorrizal species with pileus pale-pink changing to intense pink or purple colour depending on humidity, often with granulous ring-zone in the upper half of the yellow stipe, prefers as host tree oaks and can be find from the sea level up to submontane areas. The distribution is not well known but the observations are increasing and it results present in various countries in southern Europe. Precise studies must be done but presumibly the species can be assessed as NT.


Geographic range

The distribution is not well known but the observations are increasing and it results present, even if fragmented, in various countries in Mediterranean area of Europe. Most findings are in Italy with nearly 60 localities from the Po plain down to the south, and the two islands Sardinia and Sicily, in Greece 6, Bulgaria 4, France 1 in Corsica, in Spain 1 in central west part of continent and 1 on Baleares Islnads. Concluding a higher distribution in Italy, then to the est and very scattered and few to the western part of the Mediterranean basin.
At least 3 subpolutations could be distinguished, 2 small polulation in the west in Spain with a total 2 sites and a great one central east with circa 70 localities.


Population and Trends

The total population size is estimated as 5,5000 - 11,000 mature individuals, most of the records are of less than 10 mycelial individuals (1-2 genets). Population reduction has been observed and will continue into the future given that the main threats are changing of management (few thinning with the loose of open areas or clearcutting and wood harvesting), fire, and habitat degradation due to anthropogenic activities. Moreover the chestnut coppices where the species was rarely found, are threatened by deseases itshelf (Phytophthora cambivora, Cryphonectria parasitica, and the recently arrived Dryocosmus kuriphilus).
Localities - 2 Spain, 6 Greece, 4 Bulgaria, 1 France, and most in Italy with 40, so nearly 55 ‘known’ localities x maximum 10 mature individuals per site [distinctive, so probably difficult to overlook] so x 10 for potential unfound sites, which gives about 5500 mature individuals x1-2 = 5,500-11,000

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

This ectomychorrizal species grows in more open areas or at the edge of woods in extremely arid climatic conditions; the species preferr to fructify after some short weakle precipitation that follows a long arid period, could be nearly interpreted as a reaction after stress.
The soils are arid, bare, ranging from basic and weakly acid to acid. Pulchroboletus roseoalbidus prefers oaks (Quercus cerris, Q. coccifera, Q. ilex, Q. pubescens, Q. robur, Q. suber, Q. ithaburensis ssp. macrolepis) but can be found also with chestnut (Castanea sativa) from the sea level up to submontane areas principally in the central mediterranean zone, and reach the Black Sea Coast (Northern Bulgaria), In addition there is an interesting observation of this autoctonous ectomycorrhizal species with the non-native to Europe Quercus rubra in South Bulgaria (Bozoc et al, 2019).
However the species appears to display a narrower distribution in relation to its potential geographic range.

Temperate ForestMediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation

Threats

The species has more or less similar habitats and phenolody as Alessioporus ichnusanus assesed as vulnerable (Persiani, 2019 in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). In Tuscany (Italy) P. roseoalbidus was assessed as VU (Antonini D., Antonini M. , 2006), and recently also as VU in central Italy (Wagensommer et al., in print), The threats for this species preferring host trees like oaks, is the past replacement of broadleaf woods by pine monocultures, changing management, and the increasing agriculture and urbanization. The redlist of Bulgaria assessed the species as EN (Gyosheva et al., 2006) due to limited distribution, forest cutting, and habitat loss as a result of the intensive tourism and infrastructure development. Moreover fruiting bodies are often severely damaged or destroyed by the parasitic fungus Sepedonium chrysospermum. Among the host trees there is also Castanea sativa, and the deseases or illness of chestnut coppices due to at least 3 different pathogenic agents could be another threat.
The increasing observations in southern Europe brought to increasing knowledge and it can maybe be considered as NT.

Scale Unknown/UnrecordedIntentional use: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is the target) [harvest]Unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded

Conservation Actions

Limiting agricultural landuse and pine plantations, limiting the spread of exotic trees like Robinia pseudoacacia or Ailanthus altissima.
Finding a solution to the phytosanitary problems of Castanea sativa.


Research needed

Population size, distribution & trendsHabitat trends

Use and Trade

Food - human

Bibliography


Károly, E. 2006. Adatok Zemplén védendõ nagygombáiról. - Folia Historico Naturalis Musei Matrensis 30 : 399–405.
Konstantinidis, G. 2009. Mushrooms, a photographic guide for collectors. Published by the author, Athens.
Ladurner, H. & Simonini, G. 2003. Xerocomus sl - In: Fungi Europaei. Vol. 8 Pp. 1 - 527. Edizioni Candusso, Alassio.
Lannoy, G. & Estadès, A. 2001. Les Bolets. Flore mycologique d’Europe. Documentis Mycologiques Mémoire Hors série n. 6. Pp. 1-163. Association d’Écologie et de Mycologie, Lille.
Polemis, E., Dimou, DM, Tzanoudakis, D. & Zervakis, G.I. 2012. Annotated check-list of Basidiomycota (subclass Agaricomycetidae ) from the islands of Naxos and Amorgos (Ciclades, Greeces). - Annales Botanici Fennici 49 : 145–161.
Salerni E, Perini C. 2007. Mycodiversity of Nature Reserves in Central Italy. Acta mycological, 42: 5–19.

 


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted