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Xylobolus gongylodes Popoff & J.E. Wright

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Scientific name
Xylobolus gongylodes
Author
Popoff & J.E. Wright
Common names
 
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Russulales
Family
Stereaceae
Assessment status
Published
Assessment date
2023-08-06
IUCN Red List Category
EN
IUCN Red List Criteria
A4c
Assessors
Maubet, Y., Robledo, G., Campi, M.G., Monteiro, M., Martinez, S. & Popoff, O.
Reviewers
Drechsler-Santos, E., Martins da Cunha, K. & Canteiro, C.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/245800846/245801554

Justification

Xylobolus gongylodes is a saprotrophic species found occurring on large dead hardwood stumps associated with preserved forest patches. The species has only five records from Argentina and Paraguay, occurring in the Chaco-Paranaense transition following the biographical corridor formed by the Paraguay-Paraná fluvial system, within the Atlantic Forest ecoregion. The species' habitat has been suffering from several threats, such as cattle ranching, illegal logging, fire and agriculture (Miño and Atienza 2017). Between 1999 and 2016, ca. 28% of the Atlantic Forest in Paraguay was been lost (De Ponte et al. 2017), and there is no evidence that the deforestation rates and loss of forest quality have recently diminished or ceased (Rodríguez Cañete 2022). Based on the species' requirements, and the reduction in its habitat area and quality, coupled with no evident slowdown of these trends, it is conservatively suspected that its population size is decreasing and will reach a population loss of approximately 60 to 79% in 40 years, from 1999 to 2039. Therefore, X. gongylodes is assessed as Endangered under criterion A4c.

Geographic range

The species has been found exclusively on dead snags of hardwood trees within the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, with five records distributed in five sites in Argentina and Paraguay. The type specimen was collected from Cerro Muralla in Parque Nacional Cerro Cora in Paraguay. Additional specimens come from Biological Reserve Yacyreta Island and Tilinski Hotel in Paraguay and Natural Reserve Apipe Grande and Puerto Yacarei in Argentina. It is expected that the species occurs in the Chaco-Paranaense transition following the biographical corridor formed by the Paraguay-Paraná fluvial system, throughout the Atlantic Forest ecoregion.

Population and Trends

The species is known from five records, with two sites in Argentina and three in Paraguay. It is expected that the species could be found in no more than 50 sites throughout its potential distribution within the Chaco-Paranaense transition following the biogeographical corridor formed by the Paraguay-Paraná fluvial system (Oakley et al. 2005). The total population size is estimated to be no more than 6,000 mature individuals distributed in one subpopulation.

Its habitat area diminished by around 28% from 1999 to 2016 due to forest coverage loss (De Ponte et al. 2017). The species grows mostly exclusively on large decayed hardwood stumps in mature forest patches, and the availability of this type of substrate diminishes with timber extraction, one of the main threats to the habitat of this species. Considering that the rate of deforestation and loss of forest quality remained constant until 2020 (Rodríguez Cañete 2022) and that there is no evidence that this rate will diminish in the next 15 years, it is conservatively suspected that population size is decreasing and will reach a population loss of approximately 60-79% in 40 years (1999 to 2039), equivalent to three generations of this species.

Population Trend: decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Xylobolus gongylodes is found growing almost exclusively on large decayed hardwood stumps in mature forests patches, two essential requirements for the species' development. The species is expected to occur in the Chaco-Paranaense transition, following the biogeographical corridor formed by the Paraguay-Paraná fluvial system (Oakley et al. 2005).

Threats

Paraguay is among the most deforested countries in Latin America (Hansen et al. 2013). The Atlantic Forest ecoregion is considered one of the most threatened tropical forests and between 1999 and 2016 around 28% of the Atlantic forest was lost in Paraguay (De Ponte et al. 2017). Additional to the loss of forest cover due to the expansion of the agricultural and cattle frontiers; illegal logging, unplanned management of forest extraction, fires, natural phenomena (floods and droughts), and illicit crops are amongst the biggest threats to the species (Miño and Atienza 2017).

Conservation Actions

There are no species-specific conservation actions implemented for this species. More protected areas with the ecological conditions (mature forests) suitable for the species are needed. Additionally, any protected areas where it occurs should have better management and more protection against illegal activities such as wood extraction and crops. Ex situ conservation is required if the species is able to be cultivated using in vitro techniques.

Monitoring the presence of the species in the original collection sites is needed, as well as surveys in other sites with the potential to contain this species. Studies are also needed to determine correlations of species occurrence with phytogeographical regions, such as the Paraguay-Paraná fluvial corridor, and to determine if there is substrate specificity (host species, genus or family).

Use and Trade

The species does not have any known use or trade.

Source and Citation

Maubet, Y., Robledo, G., Campi, M.G., Monteiro, M., Martinez, S. & Popoff, O. 2023. Xylobolus gongylodes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2023: e.T245800846A245801554. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2023-1.RLTS.T245800846A245801554.en .Accessed on 3 January 2024

Country occurrence