• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Amanita arocheae Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling

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Scientific name
Amanita arocheae
Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Joaquin Cifuentes
Joaquin Cifuentes
Comments etc.
Anders Dahlberg, Roy Halling

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Amanita arocheae is a very distinct neotropical member of lethal Amanita section Phalloideae, easy to recognize because it is the only one with fibrillous olivaceous-grey pileus in the Clade III of Cai et al. (2014), therefore closer to A. virosa than to Amanita phalloides. Its distribution is confined to humid oak and cloud forests in the neotropics. Cloud forests are strongly threatened, have a high floristic diversity and provide habitats where the most ancient angiosperm lineages have survived (Luna-Vega and Magallón, 2010).

Endangered under IUCN A4c criteria

Geographic range

Amanita arocheae is an exclusively neotropical species with a wide range from Mexico (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), Costa Rica to Colombia.

Population and Trends

≤ 20 known localities, most finds in Mexico.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Recorded only in humid oak and cloud forest in subtropical areas in the neotropics. Ectomycorrhizal, unknown specific plant host(s). It is expected the habitat to continue being modified 20 % in 5 years (González-Espinosa et al., 2011).

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest


Cloud forests are recognized as one of the most globally threatened plant communities because of their naturally scattered distribution along a narrow elevational belt in which intense land-use change continues to take place. Around 60% of cloud forest tree species are critically endargered to vulnerable and more than 50% of original forest has been replaced for agriculture and grazing (González-Espinoza et al., 2011) and will continue declining (Muñóz-Villers and MacDonnell, 2013).

Shifting agricultureNomadic grazingSmall-holder grazing, ranching or farmingUnintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target)Intentional use: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is the target) [harvest]Soil erosion, sedimentationHabitat shifting & alteration

Conservation Actions

This habitat is in high need of site protection, making biological corridors.

Site/area protection

Research needed

We need to know plant hosts, the exact sizes of individuals and populations and the influence of nature conditions. More than 70 tree species in mexican cloud forest are already red listed (González-Espinosa, 2011).

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade


Aroche R.M, Villegas M, Cifuentes J, Lorea F, Bonavides J, 1984b. New data on the distribution and taxonomy of Amanita phalloides in Mexico. Bol. Soc. Mex. Micol. 19: 275-281.
Cai Q, Tulloss RE, Li P Tang LP, Bau T, Zhang P, Chen ZH, Yang ZL, 2014. Multi-locus phylogeny of lethal amanitas: Implications for species diversity and historical biogeography. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14:143 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/14/143
Cifuentes J, Villegas M, Pérez-Ramírez L, 1993. Hongos macroscópicos. Capítulo del Libro. in Luna V.I. y Llorente-Bousquets J. Historia Natural del Parque Estatal Omiltemi, Guerrero. Fac. de Ciencias, UNAM, y CONABIO, SEDESOL, México.
González-Espinosa M, Meave JA, Lorea-Hernández FG, Ibarra-Manrríquez G, Newton AC,  2011. The red list of mexican cloud forest trees. Published by Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.
Luna-Vega I, Magallón S, 2010. Phylogenetic Composition of Angiosperm Diversity in the Cloud Forests of Mexico BIOTROPICA 42(4): 444–454 2010 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00606.x
Muñóz-Villers LE, McDonnell JJ, 2013 .Land use change effects on runoff generation in a humid tropical montane cloud forest region. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3543–3560.
Tulloss RE, Ovrebo CL, Halling RE, 1992. Studies on Amanita (Agaricales) from Andean Colombia. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 66: 1-46.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted