• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Lobaria lobulifera B.J. Moore

Search for another Species...

Scientific name
Lobaria lobulifera
B.J. Moore
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Assessment status
Proposed by
James Lendemer
James Lendemer, Andrew Gaier

Assessment Notes


AOO < 500 km², the population is severely fragmented, there is continuing decline in AOO, and the number of mature individuals < 2,500, all of which satisfy endangered criterion B2 ab(i,ii).

Taxonomic notes

Emmanuleila lobulifera was originally described as Lobaria lobulifera by Moore (1969), who chemically and morphologically differentiated this species from the more widely distributed L. erosa. They were then combined and treated as a single species under the name L. tenuis for several decades until molecular and phenotypic studies lead again to their recognition as distinct when both were placed in the genus Emmanuleila that was recently proposed by Simon et al. (2020). Many records of E. lobulifera remain under the name E. tenuis in natural history collections and biodiversity databases. All North American records of E. tenuis are referrable to E. lobulifera except for one disjunct occurrence from tropical southern Florida that was examined and confirmed as E. tenuis for this assessment.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Geographic range

Emmanuleila lobulifera is endemic to the Coastal Plain of southeastern North America ranging central Florida and southeast Alabama north to southern Georgia and South Carolina

Population and Trends

Populations were likely naturally fragmented historically, only occurring in stands wetland forests that are distributed patchily across the landscape. It is likely rare at sites where it occurs based on density of occurrence records. The current population is estimated to be between 640 - 1280 based on current AOO and a conservative estimate of 5 - 10 functional individuals per site. We suspect the population has declined based on a 27% reduction in AOO. This is likely due to dramatic changes in forest structure in the region over the last century (Hanula and O’Brian 2015). We suspect that as a result, these naturally fragmented population have become increasingly fragmented. It is likely that at least two historical Georgia subpopulations have already been lost based current occurrence records (1990 - present).

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Emmanuleila lobulifera grows on hardwood trees in swamp forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. It is often associated with high quality and mature forest stands. Often seen growing with Polychidium (Moore 1969).

Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]


This species is especially sensitive to the threats of habitat loss and climate change due to its naturally fragmented distribution. Subpopulations are scattered patchily throughout its range without a contiguous range-core population. The hardwood forests in this region that this species relies on are threatened by dramatic changes in forest structure over the last century from logging and fires (Hanula and O’Brian 2015). Climate change poses a risk to these habitats as well, with warmer winters influencing higher tree mortality via increased pests and pathogens (Lesk et al. 2017, Yaussy et al. 2013)

Unintentional effects: large scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]

Conservation Actions

Emmanuleila lobulifera primarily inhabits public lands. While it has been found in some private areas, such as the Craig Barrow farm in eastern Georgia, these are sites that still provide enough of a buffer from the threats of urbanization and land use changes. As this species’ population is naturally fragmented, local extinctions at the subpopulation level are of higher concern than any broad scale threat; therefore, it would likely benefit most from conservation actions at a local scale. This includes protecting intact stands of hardwood forest, broader training and awareness towards the threats to these habitats, and long term monitoring of population trends.

Site/area managementTraining

Research needed

The lack of connectivity between populations underscores a need to examine genetic diversity of populations as well mechanisms for dispersal and colonization.

Life history & ecology

Use and Trade

This species is collected for scientific research. Other human uses have not been documented.



Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted