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Entyloma maroccanum Maire

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Scientific name
Entyloma maroccanum
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Rust and Smut
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
IUCN Red List Criteria
Denchev, T.T. & Denchev, C.M.
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/73677552/73677555


Entyloma maroccanum is a host specific smut fungus which develops sori in leaves of Eryngium maroccanum (Apiaceae). The fungus is fully dependent on its host plant for its existence and inevitably more rare than its host plant.

Eryngium maroccanum is endemic to Morocco and categorized as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List. It is a rare plant species with distribution restricted to the central part of the Middle Atlas mountains, known from seven sites (Azrou, Boulmane, Tabainout, Tamalout, Timahdit, Aguelman, and near Kasba of Bou Arif), at 1,400–2,000 m elevation. The extent of occurrence (EOO) of Eryngium maroccanum is about 1,500 km², within which the area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 150 km². The population trend of the host plant was assessed as stable, even under high grazing pressure, but it was noted that this species is distributed in a habitat type (temporary wetlands) that is declining in Morocco and it might undergo a decline in population size in the future.

The smut fungus, Entyloma maroccanum, has only been collected once, in 1923 near Azrou (the Middle Atlas). Hence, it is known only from the type collection. Entyloma maroccanum is by necessity more narrowly distributed than its host plant and faces at least the same threats. Both the host plant and smut fungus are threatened by human impacts; the lakes of the Middle Atlas mountains are exposed to high pressure from tourism activities and water pollution, and by drought.

This is an threatened parasitic fungus strictly associated to near threatened (NT) host plant with a very restricted distribution area. It fulfils B-criterion using area of occupancy (known AOO is only 4 km2, and the maximum AOO is estimated not to exceed 150 km²) and precautionarily meets the requirements for Critically Endangered under criterion B2, regarding subcriteria a (number of locations) and b(iii) (continuing decline – inferred – in the area and quality of the habitat).

Geographic range

To date, Entyloma maroccanum is known only from one site in Morocco, the Middle Atlas, Ras-el-Ma, near Azrou, alt. ca 1,600 m (Maire and Werner 1937, Vánky 2011, Vánky et al. 2011). The host plant, Eryngium maroccanum, is endemic to Morocco and has a very restricted distribution area (extent of occurrence less than 1,500 km², within which the area of occupancy is less than 150 km²). The host plant is globally assessed as Near Threatened (NT) (Rhazi et al. 2010).

Population and Trends

There is no specific information on population size or trends. However, the host plant, Eryngium maroccanum, is assessed as Near Threatened and is restricted to a few sites within less than 1,500 km² (EOO) and 150 km² (AOO) within an area subjected to ongoing and increasing tourism activities, water pollution, and drought.

Population Trend: decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Entyloma maroccanum develops sori in leaves of Eryngium maroccanum. The fungus is host-specific (Vánky 2009) and is fully dependent on its host plant for its existence. Eryngium maroccanum is a perennial plant, found in temporarily flooded habitats, along temporary streams and in fens, at altitudes of 1,400–2,000 m.


Both the host plant and smut fungus are threatened by drought. Temporary wetlands are habitats that are under severe threat in Morocco, both from human impacts and from climate change. Specifically the lakes of the Middle Atlas are exposed to high pressure from tourism activities and water pollution (Rhazi et al. 2010).

Conservation Actions

The only known site of this smut fungus is not in a protected area. Ex situ conservation of the plant will not necessarily protect the fungus: in situ conservation is needed.

Source and Citation

Denchev, T.T. & Denchev, C.M. 2022. Entyloma maroccanum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2022: e.T73677552A73677555. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2022-2.RLTS.T73677552A73677555.en .Accessed on 19 December 2022

Country occurrence