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  • Under Assessment
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Bresadolia paradoxa Speg.

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Scientific name
Bresadolia paradoxa
Author
Speg.
Common names
Fígado-de-Anta
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Kingdom
Fungi
Phylum
Basidiomycota
Class
Agaricomycetes
Order
Polyporales
Family
Polyporaceae
Assessment status
Preliminary Assessed
Preliminary Category
VU A3c
Proposed by
Nelson Menolli Jr
Assessors
Genivaldo Alves-Silva, Nelson Menolli Jr
Reviewers
E. Ricardo Drechsler-Santos, Kelmer Martins da Cunha

Assessment Notes

Justification

Bresadolia paradoxa is an edible species known from 19 sites within the Amazon forest in Brazil and Colombia, and Southeastern and Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest, expanding its distribution to the Misiones region in Argentina, and Alto Paraná in Paraguay, being expected to mainly occur in these areas and conditions.  Other three sites are located in gallery forests within the Cerrado in Central-Western Brazil, the Chaco in Argentina, and humid forests in Costa Rica. The species is consumed, harvested, and commercialized by indigenous populations, being its use considered safe. It is uncommon throughout its wide range, although it produces conspicuous basidiomata and a great sampling effort has been made in its habitat. Although there is a continuous and high sampling effort in Atlantic Forest areas within Northeastern Brazil, the species was never collected in this region. A reduction of area in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest of around 13% is expected to be met in 50 years. In the Amazon, the B. paradoxa population is mainly threatened by impacts of climate change, where a reduction of around 24% is expected to be met in the same time frame. For both biomes, considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation in small patches, these percentages will probably reflect also in habitat quality loss, which can be projected in a loss of around 30% of suitable habitat. Based on the habitat area and quality losses within the next 50 years (three generations), B. paradoxa is considered Vulnerable under A3c.


Taxonomic notes

Bresadolia paradoxa Speg. [as ‘Bredasolia’], Anal. Soc. Cient. Argent. 16(6): 277 (1883).
Polyporus aquosus Henn., Hedwigia 43(3): 199 (1904), described from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state), is considered a synonym.


Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

Bresadolia paradoxa is a wild edible species that has been harvested to commercial purposes in large quantities. Also, the species has been studied for domestication. Thus, its assessment is needed to understand its conservation status.


Geographic range

Bresadolia paradoxa was described from East Paraguay (unknown locality) and there are additional records to Alto Paraná in Paraguay, to the Chaco and Misiones provinces in Argentina, to Casanare province in Colombia, to Limón province in Costa Rica, and to Central-Western, Northern, Southern and Southeast Brazil and in the Atlantic and Amazon forests (GBIF 2024; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2018). The records to Brazil include preserved fragments of Atlantic Forest in the states of Espírito Santo (Santa Teresa), Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu), São Paulo (Caraguatatuba, Eldorado, Ilhabela, Iporanga, and São Paulo), Rio de Janeiro (Paraty), and Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre and São Leopoldo); in the Amazon Forest for the states of Roraima (Awaris region); and in the state of Mato Grosso, in the city of Primavera do Leste, with only on collection restricted to gallery forest regions within the Cerrado biome, where the phytophysiognomy is similar to the Atlantic Forest and Amazon biomes (GBIF 2024; Motato-Vásquez et al. 2018; Sanuna et al. 2016). It is expected that the species also occurs in other Central America countries and other Amazonian regions, as some occurrences were wrongly identified as Polyporus udus.


Population and Trends

Bresadolia paradoxa is a conspicuous species that produces large basidiomata (usually > 10 cm pileus in diameter), which grow solitary or dispersed with up to 10 basidiomata on the same dead hardwood log. There are about 48 known collections to around 22 known sites in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Paraguay. In South America, the species is expected to be restricted to South and Southeastern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, and reaching the Misiones region in Argentina and the Alto Paraná region in Paraguay, both with equivalent phytophysiognomies to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although there is a continuous and high sampling effort in Atlantic Forest areas within Northeastern Brazil, the species was never collected in this region, and thus it is believed that its distribution does not reach higher latitudes in this biome. Additionally, the species has an occurrence in the gallery forests within the Cerrado biome, which are formations similar to humid tropical forests. Therefore, it is expected that the species does not occur in dry areas of the Cerrado, and originally the species population must be connected from Amazon to the Atlantic Forest by those gallery forest patches. Bresadolia paradoxa also occurs in the Amazon region within Brazil and Colombia extending its distribution to humid forests in Central America, within Costa Rica. It is expected one single population in estimated 3000 sites where, each containing up to 33 mature individuals, with about 100,000 mature individuals in total. Although conspicuous and with a large estimated population, the species is not so common considering the long term sampling in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. The species habitat is threatened mainly by historical and continuing urbanization in the Atlantic Forest (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018) and climate change impacts in the Amazon. Considering those threats, it is projected that the species will suffer a reduction of 31.37% in the next 50 years (three generations). Population decline was projected in light of extension loss of suitable habitat (Silva et al., 2020; Zhang et al., 2015) and the putative negative influence that habitat degradation has on species occupation in a given environment (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015).

Population Trend: Decreasing


Habitat and Ecology

Bresadolia paradoxa is a conspicuous species that produces large basidiomata (> 10 cm pileus in diameter) which grow solitary or dispersed with up to 10 basidiomata on the same dead hardwood log. Most of the records are mainly from well-preserved forest fragments within the Atlantic Forest and the Amazon, but some of them are from fragments in or close to urban areas.

Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest

Threats

Although the species population spans to other biomes, such as the Chaco and specific formations in the Cerrado, most of the collection are within the Amazon and the Southeastern and Southern Atlantic Forest. Therefore, the main threats considered are related to these two regions. Deforestation in the Atlantic Forest has largely declined over the last two decades due mainly to urbanization. However, it has been heavily exploited, and only 28% of its natural coverage remains, largely composed by forest fragments and secondary forests (Tabarelli et al. 2010, Rezende et al. 2018). Although Misiones is the most preserved fragment of Atlantic Forest in Argentina, only about 17% of the province is in protected areas (Izquierdo et al. 2008). Considering the annual area loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest from 1985-2018 of 0.25% (Silva et al., 2020) and a continuing decline, a reduction of around 13% is expected to be met in 50 years. In the Amazon, the B. paradoxa population is mainly threatened by impacts of climate change, where a reduction of around 24% is expected to be met in the same time frame (Zhang et al., 2015). For both biomes, considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation in small patches, these percentages will probably reflect also in habitat quality loss (Berglund & Jonsson 2002, Haddad et al. 2015), which can be projected in a loss of around 30% of suitable habitat.

Housing & urban areasCommercial & industrial areasMotivation Unknown/UnrecordedHabitat shifting & alterationDroughts

Conservation Actions

The main conservation action to benefit the species population is the protection of its habitat. Large fragments should be a priority to conserve the species as it guarantees habitat quality. The maintenance and enforcement of already placed conservation units it is also required. As the outcomes of climate change are among the main threats to the species population and its habitat, ex-situ conservation based on in-vitro cultures are necessary to protect the species genetic diversity without the influence of these factors.

Site/area protectionResource & habitat protectionSite/area managementGenome resource bankInternational levelNational level

Research needed

New samplings are needed to better understand the distribution of the species, as well as in other countries with Amazon Forest where the species probably occurs, but also where it has not been or have been poorly reported, such as in the Atlantic Forest in Northeastern Brazil and in Central-Western Brazil, in the Cerrado biome. The cultivation potential and medicinal properties of the species also need to be further studied. The large scale harvest to commercial purposes of the species needs to be better understood regarding negative impacts in its population stability.

Population size, distribution & trendsLife history & ecologyHarvest, use & livelihoodsHarvest level trendsTrade trends

Use and Trade

The species is edible and has been reported to be used by the Sanoma indigenous people, part of the Yanomami people, who inhabit the Awaris region, in the mountain forests of the extreme northwest of Roraima, Brazil. The species is also traded by them in a mushroom mix that may contain more than 10 mushroom species and is a product of the Yanomami agricultural system. Basidiomata of B. paradoxa found in the state of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil, have been consumed as food by experienced mycologists.

Food - human

Bibliography

Berglund, H., & Jonsson, B. G. (2003). Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests. Biological conservation, 112(3), 319-328.

GBIF.org (16 January 2024) GBIF Occurrence Download https://doi.org/10.15468/dl.kwejpw

Haddad, N. M., Brudvig, L. A., Clobert, J., Davies, K. F., Gonzalez, A., Holt, R. D., ... & Townshend, J. R. (2015). Habitat fragmentation and its lasting impact on Earth’s ecosystems. Science advances, 1(2), e1500052.

Izquierdo, A.E., De Angelo, C.D. and Aide, T.M. 2008. Thirty years of human demography and land-use change in the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina: An evaluation of the forest transition model. Ecology and Society 13(2): 3.

Motato-Vásquez, V., Grassi, E., Gugliotta, A. M., & Robledo, G. L. (2018). Evolutionary relationships of Bresadolia (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) based on molecular and morphological evidence. Mycological Progress, 17, 1031-1048.

Rezende, C. L., Scarano, F. R., Assad, E. D., Joly, C. A., Metzger, J. P., Strassburg, B. B. N., … Mittermeier, R. A. (2018). From hotspot to hopespot: An opportunity for the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. doi:10.1016/j.pecon.2018.10.00

Sanuma, O. I., Tokimoto, K., Sanuma, C., Autuori, J., Sanuma, L. R., Sanuma, M., Martins, M. S., Menolli Jr, N., Ishikawa, N. K., & Apiamö, R. M. Enciclopédia dos Alimentos Yanomami (Sanöma): cogumelos. São Paulo: Instituto Socioambiental. Access: 17 January 2024. https://acervo.socioambiental.org/acervo/publicacoes-isa/enciclopedia-dos-alimentos-yanomami-sanoma-cogumelos

Silva, R. F. B., Millington, J. D., Moran, E. F., Batistella, M., & Liu, J. (2020). Three decades of land-use and land-cover change in mountain regions of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Landscape and Urban Planning, 204, 103948.

Tabarelli, M., Aguiar, A. V., Ribeiro, M. C., Metzger, J. P., and Peres, C. A. 2010. Prospects for biodiversity conservation in the Atlantic Forest: Lessons from aging human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation 143(10): 2328-2340.

Zhang, K., de Almeida Castanho, A. D., Galbraith, D. R., Moghim, S., Levine, N. M., Bras, R. L., ... & Moorcroft, P. R. (2015). The fate of Amazonian ecosystems over the coming century arising from changes in climate, atmospheric CO 2, and land use. Global change biology, 21(7), 2569-2587.


Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted