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Amanita lepiotoides Barla

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Scientific name
Amanita lepiotoides
Common names
Húsbarna galóca
Dežnikasta mušnica
Amanite fausse-lépiote
Braunscheidiger Wulstling
Large-Scaled Amidella
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Assessment date
IUCN Red List Category
Gisotti, D.
Dahlberg, A.

Assessment Notes

The content on this page is fetched from The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/156286058/156286084


Amanita lepiotoides is an ectomycorrhizal fungus associating with broadleaved trees, especially oaks, confined to southern Europe. It has large, conspicuous and easily recognizable sporocarps and was described in 1885. Although its potential habitat oak woods is widely distributed, it is obviously very rare and was only reported from 30 sites between 1970- 2019. Considering unrecorded sites, the total population is estimated not to exceed 500 sites and 10,000 mature individuals. The habitat of oak forests in southern Europe is in slow decline, mainly due to climate change. Subsequently, the habitat of A. lepiotoides is estimated to be in slow decline and projected to decline in the range of 10% during the coming 50 years. The species is thus assessed as NT as being close to the threshold for VU under criterion C1.

Taxonomic notes

The complex of Amanita lepiotoides in the section Amidella also comprises the two better known Mediterranean species A. ponderosa and A. curtipes (Moreno, Gabriel, et al. 2008).

Geographic range

Amanita lepiotoides is only known from southern and central Europe. Most reports are from Spain (Arrillaga and Mayoz 2005, Jimenez 2010), central and southern France (Burdy 1968, Rouzeau 1982), and Italy (Anastase and La Rocca 1997, Galli 2000, Zecchin 2000, Ciccarone et al. 2005). It is also recorded in Switzerland, southern Austria, Slovenia, northern Croatia (Tkalčec et al. 2008) and recently from northern and western Hungary (Lukács, 2010).

Population and Trends

The habitat of Amanita lepiotoides, oak woods, is widespread in southern Europe. However, it is obviously a rare fungus and was only reported from about 30 sites between 1990-2019, despite having are large and conspicuous sporocarps and being easily identified in the field. The fungus has been known and searched for for a long time. It was described in 1885. The potentially total number of sites with occurrence, hence the total population size, of A leptioides is challenging to estimate due to its potentially widespread habitat. Accounting for such unrecorded sites, it is unlikely that A. leptioides occur at more than 500 sites. The fruiting typically consist of 1 or 2 fruit bodies at each site. Assuming on average two functional individuals per site, each site is estimated to consist of 10 mature individuals (Dahlberg and Mueller, 2011), the known sites corresponds to 600 mature individuals, and the total estimated sites to about 10,000 mature individuals.

The main host trees of A. lepiotoides, Quercus petraea and Q. robur, are widespread and common, but have historically gone through population declines as a result of  as a result of habitat loss, timber trade and disease die back (Ducousso et al. 2003). They are globally red-list assessed as Least Concern, but have declining European populations and are predicted to be negatively impacted by climate change (Gorener et al. 2017, Barstow and Khela, 2017). Their ranges are likely to move northwards with much of France, Italy and Spain becoming unsuitable (EU Commission 2017). Oak forests all over Europe are subject to defoliation (Fischer, Richard, et al. 2010) and episodes of dieback driven by climate change, increasing in frequency and projected to increase further (Keča et al. 2016).

The population of A. lepiotoides is projected to decline in parallel with oaks declining. The projected population decline is estimated to be about 10% in the coming 50 years.

Population Trend: decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Amanita lepiotoides forms ectomycorrhiza with broadleaved trees. It is mainly reported to associate with deciduous oaks, Quercus (Q. cerris (unpublished), Q. petraea (Lukács 2010), Q. pyrenaica (Jimenez 2010) and Q. robur (Arrillaga and Mayoz 2005)) but is also found with beech (Fagus sylvatica, Lukács 2010) and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa, Anastase & La Rocca, 1997). Most observations are from rather dry and termophilic forests on soils that can be either calcareous and acidic. Fruit bodies are reported from July to August. Mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi can be long-lived, as old and potentially significantly older, than their host trees.


The main large scale threat is climate change, causing changes in temperatures and precipitation patterns are projected to negatively affect the oak habitats of A. leptiotoides, including increasing the incidence of dieback in oak forests (Keča et al. 2016). Locally, logging, replacing oak forest with conifer plantations for timber production and invasion of by alien tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Ailanthus altissima) may be fatal (Gómez-Aparicio et al. 2009, Keenan and Kimmins 1993, Radtke et al. 2013).

Conservation Actions

A key action will be the protection of known sites. It is desirable to improve the ecological knowledge of Amanita lepiotoides to better understand its habitat requirements and to identify appropriate conservation management. Such knowledge, combined with more attention paid to search for the species, e.g. by surveys, would also result in better knowledge of its occurrences, the population size and its trend.

Use and Trade

There is no use and trade known. The edibility of Amanita lepiotoides is unknown. Some species in the same section of Amanita´s have norleucine toxicity, while some others are consumed (Kirchmair et al. 2012).

Source and Citation

Gisotti, D. 2019. Amanita lepiotoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T156286058A156286084. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T156286058A156286084.en .Accessed on 2 February 2024

Country occurrence