- Scientific name
- Cortinarius phrygianus
- Common names
- frygisk spindling
- IUCN Specialist Group
- Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
- Assessment status
- Assessment date
- IUCN Red List Category
- IUCN Red List Criteria
- Brandrud, T.-E., Krisai-Greilhuber, I. & Saar, I.
- Dahlberg, A.
is an ectomycorrhizal species associated mainly with Pinus sylvestris
and rarely with Picea abies
, while in Canada it has been reported with Pinus banksiana
. Its major habitat is dry, lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests, especially in continental sites (with a dry climate) and with richer, somewhat calcareous sand. Sometimes the species may occur in richer spruce forests (low-herb type), at least where adjacent to sandy pine forest populations. Except for a few places in its core area of Fennoscandia (Norway-Sweden-Finland), the species is apparently extremely rare. The lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests have gradually disappeared or become depauperated in large part of Europe, due to eutrophication (N-enrichment, with shift from lichens/mosses/ericoid plants to grass-dominated developments), forestry, roads/industry/settlements/military activity and gravel pits. Intact sandy pine forests with good ecological conditions are now remaining mainly in boreal northern Europe including west Siberia. The major dry pine forest habitat of Cortinarius phrygianus
is assessed as having undergone a decline of more than 30% in quality and quantity (pine forest area), which is expected to continue, due to the threats mentioned above over 50 years (three generation period). In particular, in Sweden, which houses the largest population of the species, an ongoing population decline inferred from habitat change (forest statistics) is estimated to exceed 30%. The total population is also estimated to be <10,000 individuals. Hence, C. phrygianus
is assessed to meet the category Vulnerable (VU) under the criteria A2c+3c+4c and C2a(i).
The species is treated (including a neotypification) in a two-part monography on Cortinarius
issued May 2021 (Ammirati et al
. 2021, Bidaud et al
has its core area in sandy pine forests on glacifluvial deposits in Fennoscandia; mainly in central/north Sweden and Finland, and continental parts of eastern Norway (Brandrud and Bendiksen 2014). It apparently follows the sandy pine forests of the boreal taiga zone further east, reported from the Perm region and east to Kanthy-Mansiysk in west Siberia, Russia. In Fennoscandia, the species is mainly confined to boreal sites, but extends south to boreonemoral sites in Scania-Småland, and has been found also once in Estonia. The species is rather widely distributed in central Europe as well, but being extremely rare and fragmented, with one or a few sites per country. The species is in Germany reported once from open, military-disturbed pine woodland on glacifluvial deposits in north-east Germany and once from Schwabian Alps (Ludwig 2015). and is otherwise found once in Switzerland and once in Austria (Brandrud and Bendiksen 2014). According to Ludwig (2015) the species has also be reported from Italy, France and Spain, but a couple of these may be uncertain. The species is verified with sequencing also from one site in Quebec, Canada (Pinus banksiana
forest; Ammirati et al
Population and Trends
Cortinarius phrygianus is known from 13 localities in Norway, 26 localities in Sweden (Brandrud and Bendiksen 2014, updated with national databases, red-list- and GBIF data, Jan 2021) and approximately 20 localities in Finland. Only a couple of sites are reported from Russia, just a few from central Europe and montane southern Europe, and only once from Canada. Since being very characteristic and easily identified, the species must be very rare in Europe outside Fennoscandia and in North America. The real, total number in Fennoscandia is here estimated to approximately 350 localities, and the global population to approximately 450-500 localities/sites corresponding to 9,000-10,000 mature individuals (Dahlberg and Mueller 2011). Due to various negative trends (clear-cutting, areal loss, nitrogen-pollution/fertilization), the quantity and quality of dry sandy pine forests housing this species has had a considerable decline during 50 years in Europe, especially in central Europe, where the habitat has almost disappeared (Brandrud and Bendiksen 2014). The decline is continued, mainly due to ongoing forestry. In Sweden, old-growth sandy pine forests are estimated to have declined with >30% during the last 50 years. The Siberian pine forests are reported to decline as well. The species is suspected to have decreased by more than 30% in three generations (since 1970) based on estimates of habitat-loss and decreased ecological quality of the habitat, a threat that is suspected to continue.
Population Trend: decreasing
Habitat and Ecology
is a mycorrhizal fungus associated with Pinus sylvestris
, sometimes also with Picea abies
, in Europe. In Canada the species is recorded in Pinus banksiana
forest (only once verified so far). In Europe, the species is found mainly in boreal, dry lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests, especially in continental sites (with dry climate) and with richer, somewhat calcareous sand. Sometimes the species may occur in richer spruce forests (low-herb type), at least where adjacent to sandy pine forest populations. The habitat seem to be rather similar in North America (dry pine forest).
is mainly found in dry, lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests, which is a threatened habitat throughout Europe and Asia. Such sandy pine forests have gradually disappeared or become depauperated in large part of Europe, due to eutrophication (N-enrichment, with shift from lichens/mosses/ericoid plants to grass-dominated developments), forestry, roads/industry/settlements/military activity and gravel pits. Intact sandy pine forests with good ecological conditions are now remaining mainly in boreal north Europe incl. west Siberia. However, the forest type is subjected to extensive forestry also here. The major dry pine forest habitat of Cortinarius phrygianus
is estimated as having had a decline of >30% in quality and quantity (pine forest area), and this is expected to continue. This is mainly due to forestry but also due to altered land-use/deforestation and eutrophication by atmospheric N-depositions (anthropogenic) since 1970.
To prevent cutting causing declines and further fragmentation of dry, lichen/moss-dominated sandy pine forests with good habitat quality, it is important to set aside reserves, on hotspot-sites housing many rare, threatened and habitat-specific taxa such as Cortinarius neofurvolaesus
, C. pinophilus
, C. quarciticus
, Tricholoma apium
, T. matsutake
, etc. It is furthermore important to also establish sites with a less strict conservation regime, such as woodland key biotopes, and also to identify sites where extensive cautious selective cutting may be appropriate. Additionally, more surveying and monitoring of C. phrygianus
is desired, especially in North America, but also in remote parts of Siberia. Even though the species is characteristic and fairly well known, it has been documented from more new areas recently. More information about the extent and degree of decline of the habitats themselves is would also be good, especially from North America.
Use and Trade
There is no known use.
Source and Citation
Brandrud, T.-E., Krisai-Greilhuber, I. & Saar, I. 2021. Cortinarius phrygianus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T204091904A204093815. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-2.RLTS.T204091904A204093815.en
.Accessed on 27 September 2023