• Proposed
  • Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Myriostoma coliforme (Dicks.) Corda

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Scientific name
Myriostoma coliforme
(Dicks.) Corda
Common names
Pepper Pot
miriostoma; srebrna zvezdica (Serbian: мириостома; сребрна звездица)
gwiazda wieloporowata
mnohokrčka dierkovaná
Sieberdstern, Siebstern, Vielstieliger Siebstern
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Under Assessment
Proposed by
Boris Ivančević
Mitko Karadelev
Anders Dahlberg, Yury Rebriev, Boris Ivančević, M.R. Asef, Vladimír Kunca, Kamil Kędra, Mitko Karadelev, André Aptroot, A. Martyn Ainsworth, Thomas Læssøe, Vera Hayova, Ibai Olariaga Ibarguren
Comments etc.
Irmgard Krisai-Greilhuber, Beatrice Senn-Irlet, Jan Merta, Aouali Souhila, Nirmal Harsh, Claudia Perini, Izabela L. Kalucka, Tommy Knutsson

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

The genus Myriostoma is monotypic, containing the single species M. coliforme.

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

An extraordinary and distinctive, rare species. Considered threatened in many places. Included in a list of 33 species proposed for protection under the Bern Convention by the European Council for Conservation of Fungi (ECCF), and included on the Red Lists of 18 European countries.

Geographic range

World-wide distribution but very rare species. Most northerly sites in Sweden, elsewhere in Northern Europe rare, including southern England and Channel Islands, more frequent in southern Europe; also found in parts of Russia, Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Americas, South Africa, India, Hawaii, Brazil, and in Australia where it may have been introduced.

Population and Trends

Widespread but rather rare throughout most of its range and considered threatened in places. Only 155 (or some more) localities in Europe. It is known from only a few sites in Sweden, and was considered extinct in Britain from 19. century until rediscovered in 2006. Red-listed in 18 European countries. Extinct in Switzerland, in Serbia of 5 localities only two left.
11 localities in Macedonia.

Population Trend:

Habitat and Ecology

Myriostoma is saprobic, deriving nutrients from decomposing organic matter. Fruit bodies grow grouped in well-drained or sandy soil, often in the partial shade of trees. The species occurs in deciduous forests and mixed forests, gardens, along hedges and grassy road banks, and grazed grasslands. In the Northern Hemisphere, it tends to grow on well-drained south-facing slopes, while it prefers a similar habitat on north-facing slopes in Australia. In Europe, its major habitat is riparian mixed forests dominated by Salix alba and Populus alba along the great rivers. In Hawaii, it has been collected at elevations above 2,000 m where it appears to favor the mamame (Sophora chrysophylla) forest.

Temperate ForestTemperate Shrubland


Small populations, restricted to a few sites. Threatened by changes in land use, i.e. clear felling of thermophilous forests, decreased grazing. Destroying of sandy habitats.

Logging & wood harvestingUnintentional effects: subsistence/small scale (species being assessed is not the target) [harvest]Natural system modifications

Conservation Actions

Protection of localities with Myriostoma coliforme.

Site/area protectionAwareness & communications

Research needed

Mapping and monitoring of the species.

Population size, distribution & trendsThreatsPopulation trends

Use and Trade


Dahlberg A, Croneborg H. (2006). The 33 Threatened Fungi in Europe (Nature and Environment). Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe. p. 88.

Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted