• Proposed
  • 2Under Assessment
  • 3Preliminary Assessed
  • 4Assessed
  • 5Published

Calvatia candida (Rostk.) Hollós

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Scientific name
Calvatia candida
(Rostk.) Hollós
Common names
IUCN Specialist Group
Mushroom, Bracket and Puffball
Assessment status
Proposed by
Mikael Jeppson
Comments etc.
Mikael Jeppson

Assessment Notes

Taxonomic notes

Calvatia candida was described from northern Poland by Rostkovius (1839) as Langermannia candida. It is closely related to C. rugosa (syn. C. rubroflava).  In the Americas however, C. rubroflava is applied as a synonym to C. candida. The barcoding sequences submitted to Genbank of American C. candida/rubroflava are considerably different from that of a European sequence, This indicates that we might have to deal with two separate species. Also sequences submitted as C. candida from India differ from the European material. This calls for a detailed systematic study.  Furthermore, records of Calvatia candida from boreal-subalpine-arctic areas (Iceland and Greenland; Lange 1990) are erroneous and refer to Lycoperdon turneri (Larsson & Jeppson 2008, Jeppson 2013). .

Why suggested for a Global Red List Assessment?

The taxonomic situation of Calvatia candida on a global scale is somewhat unclear. As for Europe, from where it was orginally described, it is potentially threatened by habitat decline due to overgrowth or overgrazing, changing land-use etc.

Geographic range

The world distribution of C. candida is somewhat ambiguous as molecular data indicate that several species might be involved (see Names and taxonomy paragraph).

Population and Trends

Due to ambiguities in species concepts, only the European population is considered here. Rostkovius described C. candida from northern Poland but there seems to be few or no recent records of it in that area. Wojewoda (2003) proposes threat category “E” for Poland. Although rare, it seems to have stable populations in the some sandy areas of east central Europe (Hungary and SE Slovakia). Nevertheless it is redlisted as En in the Czech Republic (Holec & Beran 2006). On a European scale as a whole it seems to be declining due to habitat loss as areal of xerothermic grassland and steppe habitats is continuously decreasing. The population status in the Mediterranean vegetation (Spain, France, Italy) is currently unkown.

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology

Calvatia candida is a species of xerothermic grasslands, steppes, dry mediterranean vegetation, fallow fields, wastelands and old vineyards on sandy soil.


Occurs in exposed sites with a low field layer in dry grasslands and steppe habitats; these are threatened by overgrowth due to ceased grazing but in certain regions also by overgrazing. Transfer of steppe grasslands to cultivated fields is further detrimental to the species. Its occurrence in fallow fields and old vineyards indicate however that it might be able to colonize man-made habitats to some extent.

Conservation Actions

Red-listed as EN in the Czech Republic, in Poland proposed as “E”.
The current population status is somewhat unclear and should be subject of inventory/monitoring.

Research needed

Taxonomic research is needed on a global scale to resolve the species limits within the group C. candida, C. rubroflava and C. rugosa.

Use and Trade



Country occurrence

Regional Population and Trends

Country Trend Redlisted